【亚洲必赢626aaa.net】2015报考硕士乌Crane语1真题完形填空题源解析,201陆报考硕士波兰语寒假储存之固定搭配

亚洲必赢626aaa.net 1

【亚洲必赢626aaa.net】2015报考硕士乌Crane语1真题完形填空题源解析,201陆报考硕士波兰语寒假储存之固定搭配

  2015考研[微博]英语一的完形填空原文依然是来源于网站。我们还记得2014年考研英语一的完形就是直接来源于网站,而且竟然还是河北唐山的高三模拟考题。文都教育老师第一时间找到了今年完形的题源,来自于外文网站Givology,原文题目为:DNA
of Friendship: Study Finds We are Genetically Linked to Our
Friends,DNA友谊:研究发现我们在基因上和我们的朋友有着千丝万缕的联系。作者:Jayalakshmi
K,发表时间为:July 15,
2014。文章发表时间为2014年的7月15号,依然延续了近年来时效性强的风格。

亚洲必赢626aaa.net 1
扫码关注考研圈微信

  2015研究生入学统一考试英语一试题答案+解析

  许多正在准备2016研究生考生的考生都询问都教授,考研[微博]英语在寒假中应该怎样备考呢,都教授认为,英语在寒假阶段重在基础积累,除了词汇的记忆外,固定搭配也是一大重点,能够帮助考生更好的理解段落文章主旨。下面都教授就利用真题带各位考生来看看应该重点记忆何种搭配的词汇。

  无论是考研辅导老师还是考研学子,人们大多认为,近两年的完形文章相对于前几年而言简单了很多,文章的简单与否,其实对于真正最后出来考研英语的分数到底是多少,其间并没有一个非常正相关的关系,本质和核心在什么地方?
在透过这些文章的背后,我们要去掌握着什么样的能力?
有两点问题是可以明确的:第一,完形填空整体的难度偏简单了,并且出题思路稳定;第二,近四年考研文章的整体趋势就是实效性不断地增强,经常是从前几个月的《经济学人》这样的一些杂志当中或热门学习研究网站当中,摘取文章,并且对它进行改写。

  • 新浪教育考研栏目征稿启示
  • 2015年考研国家线已公布
  • 34校2015考研复试线已公布
  • 2015全国各地高校调剂信息平台
  • 2015高校考研调剂信息发布方式
  • 2015年考研考生发布调剂意向区

  Section 1 Use of English

  真题段落一:

  所以还是建议2016考研的考生,养成经常阅读英文的习惯,经常读一些社会科学和自然科学类的杂志或网站文章,真正提高自己的英语阅读理解水平,这才是必经之路!

  在备考中,以真题来分析解题思路,深度挖掘命题老师的出题思路,将真题作用发挥得淋漓尽致,实在是备考的最佳良方。2016考研[微博]英语的备考也是如此,能做到以上程度的考生,势必会对考题有着一番深入透彻的研究,解题也更加得心应手。今天都教授就从真题的角度出发,带考生们来看看真题中有哪些核心高频考点。

  Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each
numbered blank andmark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1.
(10 points)

  The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than
others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But
Gregory Cochran is prepared to say it anyway. He is that rare bird, a
secientist who works independently of any institution. He helped
popularize tha idea that some diseases not previously thought to have a
bacterail cause were actually infections ,which aroused much controversy
when it was first suggested.

  (文都附)Givology网站2015完形原文:

  【2015真题】

  Though not biologically related, friends are as “related” as fourth
cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is 1 a study published from the
University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences, has 2 。

  Even he, however,might tremble at the thought of what he is about to
do.

  We have more genes in common with people we pick to be our friends
than with strangers. Though not biologically related, friends are as
“related” as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is what a
study published from the University of California and Yale University in
the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has concluded。

  The study found that the genes for smell were something shared in
friends but not genes for immunity . Why this similarity in olfactory
genes is difficult to explain , for now . Perhaps , as the team suggests
, if draws us to similar environments but there is more to it . There
could be many mechanisms working in tandem that drive us in choosing
genetically similar friends rather than“functional kinship” of being
friends with benefits !One of the remarkable findings of the study was
that the similar genes seem to be evolving faster than other genes .
Studying this could help under stand why human evolution picked pace in
the last 30000 years , with social environment being a major
contributory factor。

  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted 3 1932 unique subjects
which 4 pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same
people were used in both 5 。

  ●高频搭配

  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted on 1932 unique
subjects which compared pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated
strangers. The same people were used in both samples. While 1% may seem
insignificant, it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study
James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, “Most
people do not even know their fourth cousins but somehow manage to
select as friends the people who resemble our kin.”

  ●闪光词组

  While 1% may seem 6 , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of
the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego
says, “Most people do not even 7 their fourth cousins but somehow manage
to select as friends the people who 8 our kin.”

  不敢公开:Dare not speak its name

  The team also developed a “friendship score” which can predict who
will be your friend based on their genes. The study also found that the
genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for
immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to
explain, for now. Perhaps, as the team suggests, it draws us to similar
environments but there is more to it. There could be many mechanisms
working in tandem that drive us in choosing genetically similar friends
rather than “functional kinship” of being friends with benefits!

  朋友之间X是相同的:X be something shared in friends

  The team also developed a “friendship score” which can predict who
will be your friend based on their genes。

  不依附于任何机构:Work indipendently of any institution

  One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar
genes seem to be evolving faster than other genes. Studying this could
help understand why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000
years, with social environment being a major contributory factor。

  事情没有这么简单:there is more to it

  The study 9 found that the genes for smell were something shared in
friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory
genes is difficult to explain, for now. 10 , as the team suggests, it
draws us to similar environments but there is more 11 it. There could be
many mechanisms working in tandem that 12 us in choosing genetically
similar friends 13 than “functional kinship” of being friends with 14 !

  帮助普及该观点:Help popularize the idea

  The findings do not simply corroborate people’s tendency to befriend
those of similar ethnic backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the
subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was
taken to see that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from
the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry
of subjects。(文都教育)

  很多机制共同起作用:many mechanisms work in tandem

  One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar
genes seem to be evolving 15 than other genes. Studying this could help
16 why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social
environment being a major 17 factor。

  引起了很大的争议:Arouse much controversy

  人类进化的速度加快:human evolution picks pace

  The findings do not simply corroborate people’s 18 to befriend those
of similar 19 backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects
were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to
20 that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same
population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of
subjects。

  一想到……就害怕的身体颤抖:Tremble at the thought of

  X起到主要作用:with X being a major contributory factor

  1 A what B why C how D when

  与众不同,出类拔萃的人:Rare bird

  ●长难句翻译

  2 A defended B concluded C withdrawn D advised

  由细菌引起的:Have a bacterial cause

  The study found that the genes for smell were something shared in
friends but not genes for immunity 。

  3 A for B with C by D on

  ●巩固习题

  研究还发现,朋友之间嗅觉基因是相同的,但免疫基因不是。

  4 A separated B sought C compared D connected

  He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not previously
thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections , which
aroused much controversy when it was first suggested.

  【2012年真题】

  5 A tests B objects C samples D examples

  结构提示:that some diseases 是前面 the idea 的同位语从句,not
previously thought to have a bacterial
cause做后置定语修饰前面的diseases,主干是some diseases were actually
infections.

  Over time , the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics
commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing
the uniqueness of the artist’s personal experience rather than public
glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help
as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and
explores . “The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of
self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity,
issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character,
exhibit,”wrote Smiles.”what it is in the power of each to accomplish for
himself”。

  6 A insignificant B unexpected C unreliable D incredible

  参考译文:他帮助普及这样一个观点,即以前认为不是由细菌引起的某些疾病实际上就是传染病,该观点第一次提出来的时候,引起了很大的争议。

  ●闪光词组

  7 A visit B miss C know D seek

  真题段落二:

  对伟大的定义有所不同:the attributes of greatness shifted

  8 A surpass B influence C favor D resemble

  They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty
genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts , however, social
effects, such as a strong tradition of valuing education. The latterwas
seen as a consequence of genetic isolation .Dr.Cochran suggests that the
inteligence and diseases are intimately linked. His argument is that the
unusual history of these people has subjected them to unique
evolutionary pressures that have reasulted in this paradoxical state of
affairs.

  赞颂杰出画家:commemorate the leading painters

  9 A again B also C instead D thus

  ●高频搭配

  提供宝贵的范例:furnish the valuable examples

  10 A Meanwhile B Furthermore C Likewise D Perhaps

  遭受一些令人难受的遗传性疾病

【亚洲必赢626aaa.net】2015报考硕士乌Crane语1真题完形填空题源解析,201陆报考硕士波兰语寒假储存之固定搭配。  坚韧、勤勉、正直:patient purpose , resolute working and steadfast
integrity

  11 A about B to C from D like

  以前被认为是不相关的have previously been thought unrelated

  高贵的和富有男子汉气魄的品质:noble and manly character

  12 A limit B observe C confuse D drive

  归因于社会影响 have been put down to social effects

  ●长难句翻译

  13 A according to B rather than C regardless of D along with

  高度重视教育的传统a strong tradition of valuing education

  The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their
day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist’s personal experience rather
than public glory。

  14 A chances B responses C benefits D missions

  被看做基因隔离的结果 be seen as a consequence of genetic isolation

  浪漫主义时期在赞颂该时期的杰出画家和作家时,强调的不是其所获得的公共荣誉,而是他们个人经历的独特之处。

  15 A faster B slower C later D earlier

  密切相关 be intimately linked

  凡事贵在坚持,有一种成功叫做永不言弃,大抵能成就大事者,身上都有着坚持的毅力。希望各位考生能够保持水滴石穿的精神,在今后的2016考研备考中一步一个脚印的稳扎稳打,最终叩响理想的大门。预祝各位考生金榜题名,独占鳌头!

  16 A forecast B remember C express D understand

  使他们承受独特的进化力量have subjected them to unique evolutionary
pressures

  本文由文都教育供稿。

  17 A unpredicted B contributory C controllable D disruptive

  矛盾的状态 paradoxical state of affairs

  18 A tendency B decision C arrangement D endeavor

  ●巩固习题

  19 A political B religious C ethnic D economic

  Dr.Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are
intimately linked.

  20 A see B show C prove D tell

  参考译文:Cochran博士认为,高智商与疾病密切相关。

  答案解析

  希望通过这两段真题中的段落,能让考生认识到应该积累何种固定搭配,寒假是打牢根基的好时节,希望各位考生能够踏实备考。预祝大家备考顺利,取得理想佳绩!

  1、A what
本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第一个空考察表语从句的引导词。

  文章来源:文都教育

  2、B concluded
本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考察。

  3、D on
本句前半句的句意是:这项研究是一个基于1932个独特个体的基因组广谱分析。考察Conduct
on词组,进行。从句意为:它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和陌生人进行比较。

  4、C compared 比较,根据上下文及后一句的same知道,比较为最佳。

  5、C samples 词义题,样本,C为最佳选项。

  6、A insignificant 词义题,1%,以及后面的not so转折,判断,A
insignificant不显著,为最佳选项。

  7、C know
句意为:一些人虽然并不认识他们第四代的表亲,但他们选择的朋友却和这些亲戚颇有相似之处。

  8、D resemble 词义题,和上一个空形成转折。

  9、B also 上下文逻辑题,发现了,还发现了。Also为最佳选项。

  10、D Perhaps
结合上下文:这一现象很难解释,后面接原因,原因“可能”是……最符合文章大意。

  11、B to
介词题,意为:就像这个科研团队所发现的,这个因素不仅把我们带到详细的环境中来,更有一些深层次的影响。

  12、D drive
词义题,根据上下文,对我们产生影响,驱使我们……drive为最佳选项。

  13、B rather than
逻辑题,基因上相似的,功能上相似的,二者对立不能同时存在,rather
than不是…而是最符合。

  14、C benefits 跟“功能”搭配,选个褒义词,带来好处的,最佳。

  15、A faster 词义题,根据后半句解释,这就是为什么“picked
pace”加速,这里只能选faster,一些比另外一些进化得更快,符合文意。

  16、D understand 词义题,这个研究可以帮助我们理解一个事实。

  17、B contributory
本句意为:社会环境是最主要的一个因素。Contributory贡献,最佳。

  18、A tendency
结合文章主旨,选择基因相似的人做朋友是普遍现象,tendency趋势倾向最符合。

  19、C ethnic 同义替换,基因背景相似,种族的,民族的,最符合。

  20、A see
本句意为:尽管所有的研究对象都取自欧洲血统,研究者也花心思确保了所有(用于比对的)朋友和陌生人也源自该血统中的同一支系。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions
after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER
SHEET 1. (40 points)

  Text 1

  King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don’t abdicate, they
die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the
republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his
words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy
is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for
all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic
lifestyles?

  The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy
when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the
end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above “mere” politics and
“embody” a spirit of national unity。

  It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs
continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East
expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with
10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their
absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have
survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a
non-controversial but respect public figure。

  Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of
national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the
way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and
inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are
warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited
wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be
the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the
symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful
monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince
and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or
helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the
international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly
difficult to maintain the right image。

  While Europe’s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive
for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear
from the Spanish example。

  It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with
her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come
with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty
hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that
monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service—as
non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to
know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are
the monarchy’s worst enemies。

  21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span

  [A] used to enjoy high public support

  [B] was unpopular among European royals

  [C] ended his reign in embarrassment

  [D] eased his relationship with his rivals

  22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly

  [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality

  [C] to give voters more public figures to look up to

  [D] due to their everlasting political embodiment

  23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to
Paragraph 4?

  [A] Aristocrats’ excessive reliance on inherited wealth。

  [B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families。

  [C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies。

  [D] The nobility’s adherence to their privileges。

  24. The British royals “have most to fear” because Charles

  [A] takes a tough line on political issues。

  [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised。

  [C] takes republicans as his potential allies。

  [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role。

  25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

  [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined

  [B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  [C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats

  [D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne

  解析:

  21 D ended his reign in embarrassment

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段第一和第二句。But
embarrassing scandals…have forced him to eat his words and stand down.
此处stand down译为放弃席位。因此D ended his reign in
embarrassment是原文内容的同义替换。

  22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词定位到第三段第一句it is this apparent …that explains …as
heads of state。和第三句But unlike their absolutist…most royal families
have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search
for …respected public figure.
绝大多数皇室家族使得选民避免了寻找受人尊敬的公众人物的麻烦。因此A owing
to their undoubted and respectable status是原文内容的同义替换。

  23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词定位到第四段最后一句话…it is bizarre that wealthy
aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern
democratic states
奇怪的是有钱的贵族家庭仍然处于现代民主国家的核心地位。因此B the role of
the nobility in modern democracies是原文内容的同义替换。

  24 B fails to change his lifestyle as advised

  此题属于细节题。

  根据关键词”have most of
fear”定位到第六段,Charles定位到最后一段的地二句Charles
后面who引导定语从句who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and
…world因此B fails to change his lifestyle as
advised是原文内容的同义替换。

  25 C Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs

  此题属于全文主旨题。

  着眼全文,通篇都在围绕monarchs展开。第一段由Carlos引出当今君主制面临的危机。因此Carlos,a
Lesson for All European Monarchs是全文内容的精确概括。

  Text 2

  Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The
Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents
of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a
person during an arrest。

  California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling,
particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may
search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest.
It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of
new and rapidly changing technologies。

  The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California’s
advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so
that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police,
lawyers and defendants。

  They should start by discarding California’s lame argument that
exploring the contents of a smartphone– a vast storehouse of digital
information is similar to say, going through a suspect’s purse .The
court has ruled that police don’t violate the Fourth Amendment when they
go through the wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant.
But exploring one’s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A
smartphone may contain an arrestee’s reading history, financial history,
medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The
development of “cloud computing,” meanwhile, has made that exploration
so much the easier。

  But the justices should not swallow California’s argument whole.
New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the
Constitution’s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the
explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century
with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life
in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new
personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the
Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now。

  26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it
is legitimate to

  [A] search for suspects’ mobile phones without a warrant。

  [B] check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized。

  [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents。

  [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones。

  27. The author’s attitude toward California’s argument is one of

  [A] tolerance。

  [B] indifference。

  [C] disapproval。

  [D] cautiousness。

  28. The author believes that exploring one’s phone content is
comparable to

  [A] getting into one’s residence。

  [B] handing one’s historical records。

  [C] scanning one’s correspondences。

  [D] going through one’s wallet。

  29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that

  [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed。

  [B] the court is giving police less room for action。

  [C] phones are used to store sensitive information。

  [D] citizens’ privacy is not effective protected。

  30.Orin Kerr’s comparison is quoted to indicate that

  (A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly。

  (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution。

  (C)California’s argument violates principles of the Constitution。

  (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered。

  T2

  26 答案B check suspects’ phone contents without being authorized

  解析:细节题。根据自然段定位原则,定位到首段。根据题干关键词supreme
court,whether精确定位到第一段最后一句whether police can search the
contents of a mobile
phone….,与选项进行对应,即为B在不授权的情况下检查嫌疑人的电话信息。注意A选项应是search
contents。

  27 答案 C disapproval

  解析:态度题。根据题干California’s
argument定位到第二段最后一句及第三段首句,这些句子中提到hard… recklessly
modest…等负向词,表达的是负面态度。看选项属于负面的就是disapproval。A
容忍,B冷漠是典型错误,D粗心。

  28 答案A getting into one’s residence

  解析:细节题。题干问:作者认为搜索电话薄就相当于什么?根据段落界定原则定位到第四段转折处,提到But
exploring one’s smart phone is more like entering his or her
home。与选项对应,A中的residence对应home,是原文的同意替换。注意D选项不是作者的观点,不能将文中人物观点当作作者观点。

  29 答案D citizens’ privacy is not effective protected

  解析:细节题。根据题干定位到5段和6段,题干问作者最关注的是什么,即是相应段落的段落中心。因此,该题表面是细节题,实质为段落核心。5段首句为中心句提到,应采取措施保护数据隐私;6段又继续陈述原则的不恰当之处。根据这些内容,对应答案D
市民隐私未能得到有效保护。

  30 答案 B New technology requires reinterpretation of the
Constitution

  解析:例证题。题干问的是引用Orin Kerr的目的是什么,即Orin
Kerr是论据,其目的是论点。论点往往在论据的前面,所以要找例子前面的一句话,即New,
disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the
Constitution’s protections。与选项对应,就是B new
technology是原词复现,require等同于demands,reinterpretation of the
Constitution同义替换applications of the Constitution’s protections。

  Text 3

  The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks
to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced
today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after
widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing
to the irreproducibility of many published research findings。

  “Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our
journal,” writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American
Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a
statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manu will be flagged up
for additional scrutiny by the journal’s internal editors, or by its
existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The
SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these
manuscripts。

  Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt
said: “The creation of the ‘statistics board’was motivated by concerns
broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in
scientific research and is part of Science’s overall drive to increase
reproducibility in the research we publish。”

  Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of
Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to
“play primarily an advisory role。” He agreed to join because he “found
the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique
and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be
through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a
larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach
after Science。”

  31. It can be learned from Paragraph I that

  [A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process。

  [B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks。

  [C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis。

  [D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects。

  32. The phrase ‘flagged up” (Para.2)is the closest in meaning to

  [A]found。

  [B]revised。

  [C]marked

  [D]stored

  33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE
may

  [A]pose a threat to all its peers

  [B]meet with strong opposition

  [C]increase Science’s circulation。

  [D]set an example for other journals

  34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now

  A. adds to researchers’ workload。

  B. diminishes the role of reviewers。

  C. has room for further improvement。

  D. is to fail in the foreseeable future。

  35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?

  A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers

  B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect

  C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors’ Desks

  D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science

  Text 3

  31. 答案 B journals are strengthening their statistical checks
段落推断题 考查的是段落中心句,定位在首段首句 The journal Science is
adding an extra source at Peer-review process, editor-in- chief Marcia
McNott announced today. 《科学》
杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源。与选项B同意替换。

  32. 答案 C marked 词义句意题 根据所猜短语flagged up
所在句子的句意,手稿将被flagged
up以供杂志编辑、现有的编辑评审委员会或外部同行审查。比较四个选项,只有C
marked 被标记,符合题意。

  33. 答案 D set an example for other journals 观点细节题
定位在四段末句 This impact will not only be through the publications in
Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing
places that may want to model their approach after Science.
这不仅对于《科学》
杂志本身的出版有影响,还有希望影响其它的出版社,这些出版社想继《科学》
杂志之后树立自己的典型形象。选项D是这句话的概括总结。

  34. 答案 D has room for further improvement 观点细节题
定位在末段末句,Vaux says that Science’s idea to pass some papers to
statisticians “has some merit, but a weakness is that ..。.”Vaux
认为《科学》
杂志的想法有一些好处,但是有个缺点是..。.这就说明这个想法是有进一步改进的空间的。

  35. 答案 A Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers
主旨大意题 本文首段首句就是全文主题句,《科学》
杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源,而且全文其它各个段落都在围绕对这一想法不同专家的不同态度在论述,所以选项A是对全文中心的完整表达。

  Text 4

  Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch’s daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the
“unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions”.
Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance
that the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the
market. But “it’s us, human beings, we the people who create the society
we want, not profit”。

  Driving her point home, she continued: “It’s increasingly apparent
that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government,
media or business could become one of the most dangerous goals for
capitalism and freedom。” This same absence of moral purpose was
wounding companies such as News International, she thought, making it
more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal
telephone hacking。

  As the hacking trial concludes—finding guilty one ex-editor of the
News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and
finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge—the
wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known
to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an
industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired
by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone
hacking. Others await trial. This saga still unfolds。

  In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the
fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial
took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah
Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to
ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The
core of her successful defense was that she knew nothing。

  In today’s world, it has become normal that well-paid executives
should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that
they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the
collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society
should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency,
flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation,
sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the
margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and
accountability。

  The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote
reader understanding, to be fair in what was written or to betray any
common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and
impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her
journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no
instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers。

  36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by

  (A) the consequences of the current sorting mechanism。

  (B) companies’ financial loss due to immoral practices

  (C) governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues。

  (D) the wide misuse of integrity among institutions。

  37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that

  (A) Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime。

  (B) more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking。

  (C) Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge。

  (D) phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions。

  38. The author believes that Rebekah Brooks’s defense

  (A) revealed a cunning personality。

  (B) centered on trivial issues。

  (C) was hardly convincing。

  (D) was part of a conspiracy。

  39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows

  (A) generally distorted values。

  (B) unfair wealth distribution。

  (C) a marginalized lifestyle。

  (D) a rigid moral code。

  40 Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?

  (A) The quality of writings is of primary importance。

  (B) Common humanity is central to news reporting。

  (C) Moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper。

  (D) Journalists need stricter industrial regulations。

  36. 答案A. The consequences of the current sorting mechanism.
因果细节题 题目问到Elisbeth 因什么而感到沮丧。定位在第一段第二句
Intergrity had collapsed, …, because of a collective acceptance that
the only “sorting mechanism” in society should be profit and the market,
由于社会中唯一的分类机制是利润和市场这一共同的观念,导致了正直这种道德品质的沦丧。

  37. 答案 B more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking
段落推断题 定位到第三段第一句 As the hacking trial concludes…. the
wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands
正如窃听案总结的那样,仍然存在更广泛的dearth of integrity
的事件,与选项B 对应。

  38. 答案 C was hardly convincing 观点细节题
根据第四段第二句中astonishing,how little…,how little… She never …
以及第三句中She knew nothing
的语气判断作者的态度是认为RB的辩护是没有说服力的。

  39. 答案 A generally distorted values 观点细节题
题干定位在第五段第三句,答案定位在随后的第四、第五句。 The current
collective doctrine 认为重要的是 efficiency, flexibility, shareholder
value…., 而认为justice, fairness..。.不重要,故扭曲了价值观。

  40. 答案是C moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper.
段落推断题
定位在最后一段前两句。世界新闻杂志的目的不是提升读者的理解能力。。。。而是为了发行量和影响力而毁了人们的生活。从ruined
the lives 的表达能看出作者希望杂志所做的是提高其道德意识,与C选项对应。

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For
Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit
into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do
not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10
points)

  How does your reading proceed? Clearly, you try to comprehend, in
the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out
relationships between them, drawing on your implicit knowledge of
English grammar. (41)________________. You begin to
infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about
what kind of speech event is evolved. Who is making the utterance, to
whom, when and where?

  The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of
comprehension but they show comprehension to consist not just of passive
assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving.
You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by
presenting you with specific evidence and clues. (42)
________________

  Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the
same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of
an absolute, fixed or “true” meaning that can be read off and checked
for accuracy, or some timeless relationship of the text to the world.
(43) _____________

  Such background material inevitably reflects who we are. (44)
_____________. This does not, however, make interpretation
merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from
different historical periods, places and social experiences produce
different but overlapping readings of the same words on the
page—including for texts that engage with fundamental human
concerns— debates about texts can play an important role in social
discussion of belief and values。

  How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our
particular interest in reading it. (45) _____________. Such
dimensions of reading suggest—as others introduced later in the book
will also do–that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to
any act of reading. It does not then necessarily follow that one kind of
reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another.
Ideally, different minds of reading inform each other, and act as useful
reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they
make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship
to your surrounding textual environment。

  [A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that
fulfills the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for
pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in
bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room。

  [B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading,
our gender ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards
certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off
others。

  [C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their
meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the assumption that
they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse
entities as well as possible links between them。

  [D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or
effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had:
These might be the ones the author intended。

  [E] You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text
may be significant to you, or about its validity—inferences that form
the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be
far less responsible。

  [F] In plays, novels and narrative poems, characters speak as
constructs created by the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the
author’s own thoughts。

  [G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis of
interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material:
between kinds of organizations or patterning we perceive in a text’s
formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various
kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring
to the text。

  41 【C】

  解析:41段中空,所以要看上句。空前与空后句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D中存在,此其一也;D中出现了reconstruct(重组)逻辑上是再次发生,与位于句首的逻辑发生了叙述上的矛盾。故排除D选择C。另外,C中的words
or idioms和meanings 在41空前句重现,因为前句中有identifying meanings for
individual words and working out relationships between them。

  42 【E】

  解析:42
段尾空,所以看上一句话。空前一句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D、E中存在,此其一也;其二,该句中主句谓语动词是infer,
与E中的宾语inferences构成逻辑对应关系。故排除C和D选择E。另外,42空前两句提到了阅读时我们会active
engagement in inference and problem-solving, 并针对作者文中的specific
evidence and clues 进行信息的推测。E选项中further
一词表明延续此话题,用for instance
具体举例说明我们对文章信息作怎么样的推测。

  43【G】

  解析:43段尾空,应重点看本段上一句。同时下段开头出现了代词such
background,而G中最后一句中的background与之形成逻辑对应关系。故选择G。另外,G中Rather表示转折,与43空前句开头的not
构成“not… rather…”的“不是……而是……”结构

  44【B】

  解析:44段中空,看上下句。此段空前句中有关键词background,空后句中有关键词interpretation;
background逻辑上对应G中最后一句中的background,而interpretation
逻辑对应B中最后一句中的interpretations. 故选择B。另外,B中Factors such
as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender, ethnicity,
age and social class 是44空前who we are的具体阐述。

  45【A】

  解析:45段中空,看上下句。最后一段首句主语是we,
所有选项中只有A和G的主语是we;但是G中首词是转折词Rather,与首句逻辑矛盾,故排除G选择A。另外,A中具体描述了许多不同的阅读目的和方式,此为对45空前句How
we read a given text 和our particular interest in reading it
的具体阐述。A中的信息是45空后句such dimensions of reading 的指代对象。

  Part C Translation

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined
segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on
ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early
eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk
wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement,
driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and,
by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted
continent。

  47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the
immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and
national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified
these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe.
Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen,
Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who
attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world.
48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the
interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer
difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused
significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely
visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it
resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was
distinctly American。

  49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which
is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years
after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North
America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established
in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North
America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six-
to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the
ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants
rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off
their course, and often calm brought interminable delay。

  To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought
almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, “The air at twelve
leagues’ distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.” The colonists’
first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin
forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house
which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant
fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture,
ships and potash, dyes and naval stores。

  46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation
out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny
of an uncharted continent。

  【参考译文】在多种强大的动机驱动下,这次移民[微博]在一片荒野上建起了一个国家,其本身塑造了一个未知大陆的性格和命运。

  47) The United States is the product of two principal forces——the
immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and
national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified
these traits。

亚洲必赢626aaa.net ,  【参考译文】美国产生于两个主要力量:思想习俗、民族特色各异的欧洲移民,以及修改这些特征的新国家所产生的影响。

  48 But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the
interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer
difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused
significant changes。

  【参考译文】但是,美国拥有独特的地理条件,不同民族之间产生了相互的作用,因此,在一片原始新大陆上,维护旧大陆方式产生了纯粹的困难,这一切引发了重大的变化。

  49 The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which
is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years
after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North
America。

  【参考译文】在15-16世纪北美探索的一百多年之后,运往如今的美国这片新领土的第一船移民横渡了大西洋。

  50 The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a
real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to
Georgia。

  【参考译文】拥有丰富多样树种的原始森林是一个真正的宝库,它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚州。

  Section III Writing

  Part A

  Directions:

  You are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of
about 100 words recommending a book to the club members。

  You should state reasons for your recommendation。

  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own
name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead. Do not write the
address 。(10 points)

  Dear friends,

  I am writing to tell you about a fantastic book I have just read, as
we always share the same taste of books。

  The book is called Journey to the West, which tells us a story that
four monks conquered multiple handicaps to achieve their final
destination. Besides the touching and thrilling plot, the book also
features humorous languages, thanks to the talented author。

  So I recommend it to all of you as one of the favorite books that I
have ever read. I am sure you will love it as much as I do. I am looking
forward to discussing more with you after you read it。

  Yours sincerely,

  • Li Ming

  Part B

  Part B

  52. Directions:

  Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in
your essay, you should

  1. describe the pictures briefly,

  2. interpret its intended meaning, and

  3. give your comments。

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

  A group of friends, boys or girls, are having a dinner party while
each one of them is checking messages in their mobile phones without
saying a word to one another, leaving the dishes untouched. We are
informed that this is a gathering in the era of mobile phone。

  The above picture unveils a common social phenomenon and the
symbolic meaning of the photo is the effect of the mobile phone on
people’s way of life. Undoubtedly, the phone provides us with
considerable convenience, making many things possible which are beyond
our dreams. As a communication tool, the phone makes us closer than ever
before by providing immediate communication. Meanwhile, there are
negative effects on our personal life. As is shown in the picture,
people are imprisoned in their own world! They choose contacting online
rather than communicating face to face。

  Accordingly, enjoying the convenience provided by the phones, we
should bear in mind that human beings are social beings who need real
interpersonal interactions! Joint efforts are needed to ensure people to
have face-to-face communication! I believe a harmonious relationship
between friends is awaiting us if we set aside our mobile phones and
enjoy the untouched meal!

admin

网站地图xml地图