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Singapore has been ranked the world’s most expensive city for a fifth
straight year as the cost of living in many major Asian cities continues
to march higher. Singapore, an island city state of 5.6m people, is 16
percent more expensive to live in than New York, according to an
Economist Intelligence Unit survey which compares the price of over 150
items in 133 cities around the world.

随着亚洲许多主要城市的生活成本持续升高,新加坡连续第5年被评为全球物价最高的城市。  经济学人智库(EIU)的一项调查显示,作为一个拥有560万人口的城市岛国,新加坡的生活成本比纽约高16%。EIU对全球各地133个城市中逾150种商品的价格进行了比较。  EIU的罗克珊娜•斯拉夫切娃(Roxana
Slavcheva)表示:“新加坡反映了一种地区趋势,亚洲的许多中心城市如今进入了世界最昂贵城市之列。”  来自亚太的17个城市进入了全球最昂贵城市前50强,其中香港排名第四,首尔排名第六,悉尼排名第十。上海排名第21,深圳排名第23,它们是中国内地物价最昂贵的城市,但报告指出,中国的生活成本保持稳定。新西兰的惠灵顿和奥克兰并列排名第24。  “新加坡、香港和首尔等亚洲中心与巴黎、苏黎世和奥斯陆等欧洲目的地之间的竞争,也将成为下一个调查周期的看点,”斯拉夫切娃说。  欧元走强使几个西欧城市的排名上升,巴黎前进5位,与苏黎世并列第二,奥斯陆进入前五。  排名下滑的城市包括纽约:在美元走软的背景下,纽约跌了4位,跌至第13。在日本低通胀率的影响下,东京和大阪的排名跌出前十,并列第11。  不过,南亚城市仍属于世界上物价最便宜的30个城市之列,“并且仍是亚洲地区最物美价廉的城市”,EIU说。

亚洲必赢官网app( 1全球50最安全城市,东京榜首魔都30



We care about staying safe during our travels, especially when we take
our epic adventures solo. There’s no reason for travel disasters when
you can prevent

Singapore reflects a regional trend, with Asian hubs now making up many
of the world’s most expensive cities,” said EIU’s Roxana Slavcheva.

Global city

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Parts of this article (those related to GaWC Study 2008) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2012)

“World city” redirects here. For other uses, see World city

global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha
 or world center, is
a city generally considered to be
an important node in the global economic
system. The concept comes
from geography and urban
and the idea
that globalization can be
understood as largely created, facilitated, and enacted in
strategic geographic
locales) according
to a hierarchy of importance to the operation of the global system
of finance and trade.

The most complex of these entities is the “global city”, whereby the
linkages binding a city have a direct and tangible effect on global
through socio-economic means.[\[1\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-Sass1-1) The
use of “global city”, as opposed to
“megacity”, was popularized
by sociologist Saskia
Sassen in her 1991
work, The Global City: New York, London,
;[\[2\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-2) although
the term “world city”, which refers to cities involved with large
amounts of global business, dates to at least the May 1886 description
of Liverpool, by The
Illustrated London
Geddes also used the term
“world city” later in
1915.[\[4\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-Doel_and_Hubbard-4) More
recently, the term has been described as being synonymous with a city’s
influence and ‘financial capital’, with other factors becoming less


That’s why we have special interest in visiting the world’s safest
cities, as recently ranked in The Economist’s Safe Cities Index. The
Economist Intelligence Unit looked at 50 cities, selected for factors
including their size and availability of data. The cities were ranked on
more than 40 metrics that spanned four main categories: digital
security, health security, infrastructure safety and personal




  • 1Criteria
    • 1.1Characteristics
  • 2Variant

    • 2.1GaWC
    • 2.2Global Power
    • 2.3Global Cities
    • 2.4Global
      Economic Power
    • 2.5The Wealth
    • 2.6Global City
  • 3See
  • 4References
  • 5External


Wealthy Asian cities, like Tokyo and Singapore. The other top spots went
to cities in Europe, Australia, Canada and the U.S.

Seventeen cities from the Asia Pacific region are ranked in the 50 most
expensive cities, with Hong Kong placed fourth, Seoul sixth and Sydney
tenth. Shanghai, at 21, and Shenzhen, 23, are China’s most expensive
cities though the report noted that the cost of living in China remained
stable. New Zealand’s Wellington and Auckland share 24th place.


Global city status is considered to be beneficial and desired, and
because of this, many groups have tried to classify and rank which
cities are seen as world cities or non-world
.[\[4\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-Doel_and_Hubbard-4) Although
there is a consensus upon leading world
cities,[\[7\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-GaWC_5-7) the
criteria upon which a classification is made can affect which other
cities are
included.[\[4\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-Doel_and_Hubbard-4) The
criteria for identification tend either to be based on a yardstick
 (e.g., if the producer-service sector is the largest sector then
city X is a world
city)[\[4\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-Doel_and_Hubbard-4) or
on an imminent determination (if the producer-service sector of city X
is greater than the combined producer-service sectors of N other cities
then city X is a world

Cities can also fall from such categorization, as in the case of cities
that have become
less cosmopolitan and
less internationally renowned in the current era.

And it doesn’t hurt that while they’re safe, these cities are also
pretty incredible to visit. The Economist’s 5 safest cities in the world



Although what constitutes a world city is still subject to debate,
standard characteristics of world cities

  • A variety of international financial
    services,[\[9\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-9) notably
    in finance, insurance, real
    estate, banking, accountancy,
    and marketing
  • Headquarters of several multinational
  • The existence of financial headquarters, a stock
    exchange, and major
    financial institutions
  • Domination of the trade and economy of a large surrounding area
  • Major manufacturing centres with port and container facilities
  • Considerable decision-making
    power) on
    a daily basis and at a global level
  • Centres of new ideas and innovation in business, economics, culture,
    and politics
  • Centres of media and communications for global
  • Dominance of the national region with great international
  • High percentage of residents employed in the services
    sector and information
  • High-quality educational institutions, including renowned
    universities, international student
    attendance,[\[10\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-10) and
    research facilities
  • Multi-functional infrastructure offering
    some of the best legal, medical, and entertainment facilities in the
  1. Tokyo, Japan日本 东京

  2. Singapore新加坡

  3. Osaka, Japan日本 大阪

  4. Stockholm, Sweden瑞典 斯德哥尔摩

  5. Amsterdam, the Netherlands荷兰 阿姆斯特丹

“The competition between Asian hubs like Singapore, Hong Kong and Seoul
on the one hand and European destinations such as Paris, Zurich and Oslo
on the other will be one to watch over the next survey cycle as well,”
Ms Slavcheva said. A stronger euro lifted several Western European
cities up the rankings, with Paris climbing five places to join Zurich
in second place and Oslo entering the top five.

Variant rankings

Oh and if you’re curious, the cities that came in at the bottom of the
list were:哦,如果你感到好奇的话,如下为排在最末的城市名单:


GaWC study

亚洲必赢官网app( 2


A map showing the distribution of GaWC-ranked world cities (2010 data)

Together, Jon Beaverstock, Richard G.
Smith) and Peter
J. Taylor established
the Globalization and World Cities Research
Network (GaWC).
A roster of world cities was outlined in the GaWC Research Bulletin 5
and ranked cities based on their connectivity through four “advanced
producer services”: accountancy, advertising, banking/finance, and
law.[\[7\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-GaWC_5-7) The
GaWC inventory identifies three levels of global cities and several

The 2004 rankings acknowledged several new indicators while continuing
to rank city economics more
heavily than political or cultural factors. The 2008 roster, similar to
the 1998 version, is sorted into categories of “Alpha” world cities
(with four sub-categories), “Beta” world cities (three sub-categories),
“Gamma” world cities (three sub-categories) and additional cities with
“High sufficiency” or “Sufficiency” presence. The following is a list of
the cities in the rankings, as they appear on the GaWC

  • Alpha ++ cities are cities most integrated with the global
    economy: London, New York
  • Alpha + cities are advanced service niches for the global
    economy: Hong
    Kong, Paris, Singapore, Shanghai, Tokyo, Beijing, Sydney, Dubai.
  • Alpha level cities (sorted in to Alpha cities and Alpha-
    ) are cities that link major economic regions into the world

    • Alpha
       Chicago, Mumbai, Milan, Moscow, São
      Paulo, Frankfurt, Toronto, Los
      Angeles, Madrid, Mexico
      City, Amsterdam, Kuala
      Lumpur, Brussels
    • Alpha-
       Seoul, 天下物价最高城市,全球50最安全城市【亚洲必赢官网app(】。Johannesburg, Buenos
      Aires, Vienna, San
      Francisco, Istanbul, Jakarta, Zurich, Warsaw, Washington, Melbourne, New
      Delhi, Miami, Barcelona, Bangkok, Boston, Dublin, Taipei, Munich, Stockholm, Prague, Atlanta
  • Beta level cities are cities that link moderate economic regions
    into the world economy and are classified into three
    sections, Beta + citiesBeta cities, and Beta- cities:

    • Beta +
      : Bangalore, Lisbon, Copenhagen, Santiago, Guangzhou, Rome, Cairo, Dallas, Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Athens, Manila, Montreal, Philadelphia, Tel
      Aviv, Lima, Budapest, Berlin, Cape
      Town, Luxembourg, Houston, Kiev, Bucharest, Beirut
    • Beta cities: Ho Chi Minh
      City, Bogotá, Auckland, Montevideo, Caracas, Riyadh, Vancouver, Chennai, Manchester, Oslo, Brisbane, Helsinki, Karachi, Doha, Casablanca, Stuttgart, Rio
      Janeiro, Geneva
    • Beta- cities: Guatemala
      City, Lyon, Panama
      City, San
      Jose, Bratislava, Minneapolis, Tunis, Nairobi, Cleveland, Lagos, Abu
      Dhabi, Seattle, Hanoi, Sofia, Riga, Port
      Louis, Detroit, Calgary, Denver, Perth, Kolkata, San
      Diego, Amman, Antwerp, Manama, Birmingham, Nicosia, Quito, Rotterdam, Belgrade, Monterrey, Almaty, Shenzhen, Kuwait
      City, Hyderabad, Edinburgh
  • Gamma level cities are cities that link smaller economic regions
    into the world economy, and are sorted into three
    sections, Gamma + citiesGamma cities, and Gamma-

    • Gamma +
      : Zagreb, Lahore, Saint
      Petersburg, Jeddah, Durban, Santo
      Domingo, St.
      Louis, Islamabad, Guayaquil, Baltimore, San
      Salvador, Cologne, Phoenix, Adelaide, Bristol, Charlotte, Georgetown亚洲必赢官网app(,, Osaka, Tampa
    • Gamma
      : Glasgow, San
      Juan, Marseille, Guadalajara, Leeds, Baku, Vilnius, Tallinn, Raleigh, Ankara, Belfast, San
      Jose, Colombo, Valencia, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Muscat, Ljubljana
    • Gamma-
      : Nantes, Tianjin, Accra, Algiers, Gothenburg, Porto, Columbus, Utrecht, Orlando, Ahmedabad, Asunción, Kansas
      City, Seville, Turin, Dar
      Salaam, Portland, Kraków, Managua, Pune, Leipzig, Malmö, La
  • Sufficiency level cities are cities that have a sufficient
    degree of services so as not to be obviously dependent on world
    cities. Examples
    are Jerusalem and Harare.
  1. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia沙特阿拉伯 利雅得

  2. Johannesburg, South Africa南非 约翰内斯堡

  3. Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Vietnam越南 胡志明市

  4. Tehran, Iran伊朗 德黑兰

  5. Jakarta, Indonesia印度尼西亚 雅加达

Among those moving down in the rankings was New York, which fell four
places to thirteenth on the back of a weaker dollar. Low inflation in
Japan saw Tokyo and Osaka move out of the top ten, to share eleventh
place. Still, South Asian cities are among the cheapest 30 in the world,
“and continue to offer the best value for money in the region”, EIU

Global Power City Index

The Institute for Urban Strategies at The Mori Memorial Foundation in
Tokyo issued a comprehensive study of global cities in 2016. The ranking
is based on six overall categories, “Economy”, “Research & Development”,
“Cultural Interaction”, “Livability”, “Environment”, and
“Accessibility”, with 70 individual indicators among them. This Japanese
ranking also breaks down top ten world cities ranked in subjective
categories such as “manager, researcher, artist, visitor and

  • Global Power City top 10:
    1. London, 2. New York
    3. Tokyo,
    4. Paris,
    5. Singapore,
    6. Seoul, 7. Hong
    8. Amsterdam,
    9. Berlin,
    10. Vienna

The report notes that wealth and economic development is closely linked
to city safety but certainly does not guarantee it. Researchers also
wrote that, “Being statistically safe is not the same as feeling


Global Cities Index

In 2008, the American journal Foreign
, in conjunction
with the Chicago-based consulting firm A.T.
Kearney and the Chicago
Council on Global
published a ranking of global cities, based on consultation with Saskia
Sassen, Witold
Rybczynski, and
others.[\[13\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-13) Foreign
 noted that “the world’s biggest, most interconnected cities help
set global agendas, weather transnational dangers, and serve as the hubs
of global integration. They are the engines of growth for their
countries and the gateways to the resources of their
regions.”[\[14\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-14) The
ranking is based on 27 metrics across five dimensions: business
activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and
political engagement and was updated in 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016.
Since 2015 it is published together with the Global Cities Outlook, a
projection of a city’s potential based on rate of change in 13
indicators across four dimensions: personal well-being, economics,
innovation, and

While there are many factors indeed that make a city “safe” or “unsafe,”
it never hurts to consider the facts before a trip — and we certainly
plan to do so. Cheers to safe travels,

Global Economic Power Index

In 2015, the second Global Economic Power Index, a “survey of the
surveys” compiled by Richard
Florida, was published
by The Atlantic (to be
differentiated from a namesake
list[\[16\]](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_city#cite_note-EconomicallyPowerful2015-16) published
by the Martin Prosperity Institute), with cities ranked according to
criteria reflecting their presence on 5 separate lists as published by 5

  1. Tokyo 东京

  2. Singapore 新加坡

  3. Osaka 大阪

  4. Stockholm 斯德哥尔摩

  5. Amsterdam 阿姆斯特丹

  6. Sydney 悉尼

  7. Zurich 苏黎世

  8. Toronto 多伦多

  9. Melbourne 墨尔本

  10. New York 纽约

  11. Hong Kong 香港

  12. San Fransisco 旧金山

  13. Taipei 台北

  14. Montreal 蒙特利尔

  15. Barcelona 巴塞罗那

  16. Chicago 芝加哥

  17. Los Angeles 洛杉矶

  18. London 伦敦

  19. Washington, D.C. 华盛顿

  20. Frankfurt 法兰克福

  21. Madrid 马德里

  22. Brussels 布鲁塞尔

  23. Paris 巴黎

  24. Seoul 首尔

  25. Abu Dhabi 阿布扎比

  26. Milan 米兰

  27. Rome 罗马

  28. Santiago 圣地亚哥

  29. Doha 多哈

  30. Shanghai 上海

  31. Buenos Aires 布宜诺斯艾利斯

  32. Shenzhen 深圳

  33. Lima 利马

  34. Tianjin 天津

  35. Rio de Janeiro 里约热内卢

  36. Kuwait City 科威特城

  37. Beijing 北京

  38. Guangzhou 广州

  39. Bangkok 曼谷

  40. São Paulo 圣保罗

  41. Istanbul 伊斯坦布尔

  42. Delhi 德里

  43. Moscow 莫斯科

  44. Mumbai 孟买

  45. Mexico City 墨西哥城

  46. Riyadh 利雅得

  47. Johannesburg 约翰尼斯堡

  48. Ho Chi Minh City 胡志明城

  49. Tehran 德黑兰

  50. Jakarta 雅加达

The Wealth Report

“The Wealth Report” (a global perspective on prime property and wealth)
is made by the London-based estate agent Knight Frank
LLP together with
the Citi Private
Bank. The report
includes a “Global Cities Survey”, evaluating which cities are
considered the most important to the world’s HNWIs (high-net-worth
individuals, having over $25 million of investable assets). For the
Global Cities Survey, Citi Private Bank’s wealth advisors, and Knight
Frank’s luxury property specialists were asked to name the cities that
they felt were the most important to HNWIs, in regard to: “economic
activity”, “political power”, “knowledge and influence” and “quality of


Global City Competitiveness Index

In 2012, the Economist Intelligence
Unit (The
Economist Group), ranked
the competitiveness of global cities according to their demonstrated
ability to attract capital, businesses, talent and

亚洲必赢官网app( 3