亚洲必赢官网app( 1


亚洲必赢官网app( 1

Plastic waste that finds its way into the oceans often ends up floating
on the water’s surface. It makes up huge isles of marine debris, like
the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, and it enables nature photographers to
take pictures of the ocean water that nearly do not feature that water
at all – because it is fully covered with a layer of trash. But plastic
does not only accumulate on the oceans’ surface. According to the newest
research, plastic pollution now reaches even the very deepest parts of
the oceans – and it is found in the stomachs of deep-sea creatures
living even seven miles under the surface.

A new study in the field of marine pollution has revealed a shocking
statistic – according to the research, nearly ten percent of whales,
dolphins, and porpoises examined in Ireland have plastic in their
digestive tracts. The findings are yet another reminder that our plastic
waste has an enormous impact on other living beings and the environment
at large – and the amount that is currently in the oceans must not be
allowed to grow.

Plastic is certainly a superhero when it comes to making life more
convenient. It can be made into dishes and eating utensils that you
never have to wash. Single-serve beverages and snacks in plastic
packaging are an easy grab-and-go option when you’re running out the
door for work or school. And how about plastic shopping bags so you
don’t have to remember to bring a gazillion reusable bags every time you
head to the grocery store?

A study published Tuesday (Oct. 16) in the journal?Environmental
Science and Technology
?found microplastics in more than 90% of the
packaged food-grade salt—also known as table salt—for sale in stores.

This data concerning the pervasiveness of plastic waste in the oceans
was released on behalf of Sky Ocean Rescue. The study was led by
academics at Newcastle University and it found that animals from the
deepest parts of the Pacific Ocean were contaminated with fibers that
most likely came from plastic bottles and packaging as well as synthetic

The study was published in the academic journal Environmental Pollution
and was prepared by researchers at Galway-Mayo IT and University College
Cork in collaboration with Irish Whale and Dolphin Group, Whale and
Dolphin Conservation (WDC) reports. It was one of the largest studies of
its kind – the examined data was gathered between 1990 and 2015 from
whale and dolphin strandings and accidental captures in fishing nets.
Analyzed were eleven different species of marine animals and the
plastics discovered inside their digestive tracts included plastic bags,
wrappers, fishing hooks, and even shotgun cartridges.

You may already be shaking your head at these excuses for using plastic,
but the reality is that this material is very appealing to many for the
fact that it makes life much more convenient. It can save you time and
energy in your daily routine. And besides, a lot of those plastic water
bottles and shopping bags end up in recycling centers where they’re made
into awesome new products, right?


According to Dr, Alan Jamieson, leader of the study, the findings prove
that there is no place on our planet free from plastic pollution
anymore. “There is now no doubt that plastics pollution is so pervasive
that nowhere – no matter how remote – is immune,” Jamieson told the
Guardian. At the same time, he underlined the need for action heavily.

The data also show that 8.5 percent, that is 45 individuals of those
tested, had marine debris in their stomachs and intestines. Moreover,
deep-diving species were found to have ingested more plastic than the
animals that live closer to the coast.

Well, it is true that some plastics do end up in recycling centers and
can be made into sweet new objects like a park bench or playground
equipment. The reality is that the majority of plastics go un-recycled.
In the United States, the EPA estimates that only 12 percent of plastic
waste gets recycled. The plastic materials that don’t end up recycled
typically get sent to landfills where they may take as many as 1,000
years to decompose.

The team, from South Korea’s Incheon National University and Greenpeace
East Asia, sampled 39 brands of salt harvested in 21 countries and
regions. Only three of the samples had no detectable microplastics.

During the study, samples of crustaceans found in the deepest trenches
across the Pacific Ocean – the Mariana, Japan, Izu-Bonin, Peru-Chile,
New Hebrides, and Kermadec trenches were tested. The trenches range from
four to more than six miles deep. They also include the deepest point in
the ocean, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench.

Plastic ingestion is a huge threat to marine animals as we dump around
8.8 million tons of plastic in the world’s oceans, annually. A number of
species are already deeply impacted by the pervasive plastic
accumulating in the waters – among them sea turtles, seals, sea lions,
whales, and dolphins. Once in their system, plastic can often prove
deadly, causing blockages and releasing toxic chemicals into the
animals’ bodies. In most cases, the ingestion of plastic by marine
wildlife occurs accidentally or because of the animal mistaking the
waste for food. However, according to recent research, plastic also
turns out to be eaten on purpose, for example by fish that are attracted
to its taste.

For something that is supposed to be quick and convenient, there is
nothing quick or convenient about the complete lifecycle of a plastic
object. It spends a mere fraction of its existence actually serving a
purpose. And the rest of the time, you’ll find, it is actually a
nuisance and threatens the health of the environment, animals, and even
people. How so? Read on.


The researchers examined 90 individual animals – and found that
ingestion of plastic ranged from 50 percent in the New Hebrides Trench
to 100 percent at the bottom of the Mariana Trench.

What we throw away can and very much does impact the environment in a
major way. Considering the sheer size that plastic pollution has now
reached, this burning issue influences practically every organism linked
to our oceans. Plastic is a problem that has to be addressed by
governments and big businesses – but also by each of us as consumers.

  1. To Make Plastic, We Need Oil…

Microplastics are virtually everywhere. Sea salt and lake salt are made
by evaporating water and harvesting the salt that remains. Plastic waste
flows from rivers into those bodies of water, so it’s no surprise that
the salt contains traces of it too. Scientists have been finding
microplastics in salt for years, including in salt from countries and
regions in Asia, Europe, and Africa.

“The deep sea is not only the ultimate sink for any material that
descends from the surface, but it is also inhabited by organisms well
adapted to a low food environment and these will often eat just about
anything,” Jamieson said and explained that deep-sea organisms are
dependent on food “raining down from the surface which in turn brings
any adverse components, such as plastic and pollutants with it.”

你每年从精盐中吃进三千粒塑料。To learn how to help the planet by using less plastic and producing less
dangerous plastic waste, check out One Green Planet’s #CrushPlastic

Before we can even address the issues that improperly discarded plastics
present to the planet, we have to talk about the dangers they cause to
the environment as they’re simply being produced. Petroleum and natural
gas are required to manufacture plastics. For the 30 million plastic
bags used in the United States per year alone, 12 million barrels of oil
are required. And for all of the water bottles manufactures in the
United States each year, roughly 17 million barrels of oil are needed.
The drilling, transportation and processing of this oil into plastic
materials is an energy intensive process that involves burning fossil
fuels which ultimately furthers the effects of climate change. Estimates
for the amount of carbon released from plastic manufacturing vary, but
anywhere from 100 million to 500 million tons  per year as the direct
result of plastic manufacturing. That works out to the equivalent of
emissions from between 19 million and 92 million vehicles on the road,
depending on which estimate you’re going with. So, even if you don’t use
a vehicle to get around on a regular basis, a plastic addiction may
still be causing you to contribute pretty heavily to our growing problem
with climate change.


“Isolating plastic fibers from inside animals from nearly 11 kilometers
deep [seven miles] just shows the extent of the problem. Also, the
number of areas we found this in, and the thousands of kilometer
distances involved shows it is not just an isolated case, this is
global,” he said.

Image source: stepat/Pixabay

  1. Mountains of Plastic

But the latest study goes a step further, finding that looking at where
the salt was produced is a good indicator of how much plastic pollution
is coming from that particular region.

Every year, around 8.8 million tons of plastic waste gets dumped into
the oceans. This waste does not cease to exist – it accumulates and goes
on to affect the environment and the organisms living, as the study
shows, in exactly every part and every layer of the oceans. “These
observations are the deepest possible record of microplastic occurrence
and ingestion, indicating it is highly likely there are no marine
ecosystems left that are not impacted by anthropogenic debris.” Putting
an end to the overflow of plastic waste in the oceans will require
cooperation from governments and big businesses – but it also requires
action from all of us as consumers. Our personal choices do make a
difference and we can make it a difference for the better.

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While it would be nice to think that all plastic ends up in a recycling
plant once it is done being used, that simply is not true. As has been
mentioned, a majority of plastics actually don’t end up making it to a
recycling facility to be manufactured into a new object. Sadly, 80
percent of plastic water bottles used in the United States each year end
up in a landfill. That’s roughly 38 billion water bottles! Numbers for
plastic grocery bags are even worse. Between 0.5 and three percent of
plastic bags are recycled, sending an estimated 100 billion plastic bags
to landfills in America each year.

亚洲必赢官网app( ,但最新的研讨更彻底一步,开掘查看食盐的生产地就能够很好地印证地方塑料污染的惨痛程度。

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With such poor statistics on recycling, it is obvious that the bulk of
plastic has to go somewhere once it is discarded. And that somewhere
typically ends up being a landfill. According to Zero Waste America,
there are 3,091 active landfills in the United States. And while
landfills are designed to withhold their materials and seclude them from
the surrounding environment, landfills end up leaking a variety of nasty
pollutants. Leachate, liquid that forms as materials break down in a
landfill, often leaks through the liners of the landfill and can pollute
groundwater below. And greenhouse gases like methane are produced from
decaying material inside landfills, leaking into the atmosphere and
furthering climate change. Plus, plastic has a tendency of finding its
way out of landfills … and ends up in local waterways.

The 39 samples came from Australia, Belarus, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chinese
mainland and Taiwan, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, India,
Indonesia, Italy, Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Thailand, the
UK, the US, and Vietnam.


  1. Oceans of Plastic

39份食用盐样品分别来自澳大罗萨Rio联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)、白俄罗斯、巴西联邦共和国、保加塞维利亚、中华夏族民共和国次大陆和四川地区、克罗地亚共和国(Republika Hrvatska)、法兰西共和国、德意志联邦共和国、匈牙利(Magyarország)、印度、印度尼西亚、意大利共和国、高丽国、巴基Stan、菲律宾、塞内加尔、泰王国、大不列颠及英格兰联合王国、美利坚联邦合众国和越南社会主义共和国。

You may already be familiar with the fact that there is a lot of plastic
pollution in our oceans. Maybe you’ve seen a plastic bottle washing down
a storm drain that would eventually empty into the ocean. And maybe
you’ve seen a plastic shopping bag or two wash up on the sand during
your last beach trip. Maybe you’re already aware of the Great Pacific
Garbage Patch where ocean currents have allowed a large swath of the
north Pacific to collect a spinning mass of garbage that is largely made
up of plastics.

Of these, 28 were sea salts, nine were rock salts, and two were lake

But all of that anecdotal evidence of plastic in our oceans doesn’t
quite tell you the magnitude of the problem. A recent study released
this year has scientists estimating that 8.8 million tons of plastic
waste ended up in the ocean in 2010. And with plastic use becoming more
and more popular for individuals all over the world, it is estimated
this figure will increase 10 times over the next decade. Another recent
study released by the 5 Gyres Institute estimates that there are
currently 5.25 trillion plastic particles in the ocean. Sources of this
waste are wide ranging including plastic fishing nets, food and beverage
containers, microbeads from personal care items, cosmetics, straws, and
bags just to name a few.



Only three of the samples were microplastics-free: a refined sea salt
from Taiwan, a refined rock salt from Chinese mainland, and an unrefined
sea salt in France.

And who is dumping all of this plastic into our oceans? Well, everybody.
Countries with less advanced waste management systems are at risk of
contributing more to the pollution. China leads the world in
contributing to the plastic problem in our oceans, followed by the likes
of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Even though the United
States boasts a more advanced waste management system, it does rank 20th
on the list. There is still a dense population on the coast and plastic
use in high demand, so there is a lot of available plastic that can slip
through the cracks.


  1. Marine Animals Eating Plastic

Salt made in Asia had by far the most microplastics of all the samples,
which correlates with where plastic most often enters the ocean. Nine of
the top 10 sea salts sampled with the highest amount of microplastics
came from Asia.

Plastic doesn’t just accumulate in the ocean and make for an unsightly
mess. It is hurting and killing a great deal of marine life all over the

到近年来结束,全部样品中含微塑料最多的中雪均来源于澳大莱切斯特联邦(Commonwealth of Australia),那与澳国的塑料平日流入大海有关。10种微塑料含量最高的食用盐中有9种都源于亚洲。

Ingestion of plastic pollution can be downright deadly for marine
animals. And sadly, it’s a common occurrence. Last summer a necropsy on
a deceased sei whale found in the Chesapeake Bay showed the animal had
been unable to feed due to a laceration in its stomach caused by a
plastic DVD case. In 2013 in Spain, scientists found a dead sperm whale
and determined its cause of death was intestinal blockage. In its
digestive system were 59 pieces of plastic waste totaling 37 pounds in
weight. Sea turtles are now ingesting twice the plastic they were 25
years ago. In total, it is estimated that ingestion of plastic kills 1
million marine birds and 100,000 marine animals each year.

“The results indicate that not only is Asia a hot spot of global plastic
pollution, as previous studies have suggested, but also that sea salt
can be a good indicator of the magnitude of [microplastics] pollution
in the surrounding marine environment,” the researchers write.

Sadly, ingestion of plastic isn’t the only threat that this type of
pollution poses to marine animals. Plastics can also entangle marine
animals, making movement, feeding and growth difficult or even
impossible. Plastic-based ropes, fishing nets, and even soda can holders
can get wrapped around heads, flippers, and tails of marine animals. A
recent literature report released by NOAA states that roughly 200
different marine species worldwide have been reported suffering
entanglements, with 115 of those species reported originating in the
United States. And because some species happen to inhabit areas where
plastic pollution is more common, a larger portion of their population
is more susceptible to entanglements. This fact proves true for species
like the Hawaiian monk seal which swim and feed in areas close to the
Great Pacific Garbage Patch.


  1. Killin’ The Mood For Fish

Based on their results, the researchers estimate that the average adult
ingests about 2,000 pieces of microplastic in salt per year. But, they
write, that still only represents a fraction of the microplastics a
person is likely to consume.

Plastics in aquatic ecosystems don’t just become a problem when they
wrap around an animal or end up blocking digestive systems. Plastics can
also introduce a chemical warfare to the bodies of fish, and scientists
are actually finding that it is killing reproductive health of many fish


Included in the chemical cocktail aquatic animals are hit with from
pollution is something called “endocrine disruptors.” These impact the
endocrine system, obviously, which can be detrimental to the immune
system, reproductive system, development, neurological responses and
overall growth. Bisphenol A or BPA is found in many plastics entering
the ocean and, unfortunately, it acts as an endocrine disruptor for
fish. Scientists have observed BPA exposure to some freshwater fish
species as a source of confusion for the fish, make it difficult for
them to pursue their own species to mate. Clearly, a fish of one species
attempting to mate with a fish of another species will not result in
reproductive success for either.

Previous research revealed that microplastics have also been found in
tap water, mollusks, and both indoor and outdoor air. All together,
those four pathways add up to an average 32,000 pieces of microplastic
ingested per year per person. Inhaling microplastics in the air is by
far the largest contributor—people ingest roughly 80% of the
microplastics that enters their bodies through this route.

Lines between fish species not only become blurred by plastics. This
type of pollution is also impacting gender in some fish species as well.
Chemicals in plastics are one of several types of pollution that are
feminizing male fish. When fish are exposed to chemicals that mimic
estrogen during development, their ability to develop into males is
thwarted and female characteristics develop instead. There have also
been scientific observations in which fish become intersex due to their
exposure to BPA, among other pollutants. There have been promising
results when water can be treated in a treatment plant which removes
some of these chemicals. But the problem of plastic pollution is very
widespread and difficult to address on a large scale. Until we can get a
handle on it, the reproductive rates of some fish will continue to be at


  1. Plastic On Your Plate

Given those other sources of exposure, microplastics in table salt
amounts to about 6% of a person’s total microplastics ingestion, the
researchers write.

If you thought plastic pollution in the environment was not something
that could directly impact human health, you were wrong. And, depending
on your diet, you may actually be eating a variety of nasty chemicals as
the result of plastic pollution.


Fish consume plastics both intentionally and unintentionally. And these
plastics, depending on how long they’ve been floating in the water, may
have a variety of chemicals attached to them such as heavy metals, PCB’s
and other pollutants. Once fish absorb these chemicals from ingested
plastic, the chemicals are then free to enter the bodies of anything
higher up on the food chain, including humans. While some fish sold in
the United States is tested for contaminates by the EPA, the amount of
dangerous chemicals in most seafood harvested outside the country is not
known. By including fish in your diet, you may be exposing your body to
a variety of chemicals you’d never willingly ingest. With the amount of
plastics fish are exposed to in aquatic environments, it really does
become a gamble with your own health to rely on fish as a source of
nutrients in your diet.

Microplastics have also been found in beer and fish.



Is it Worth the Convenience?

Even if you’re a recycling rockstar when it comes to plastic, you may
now be considering whether the convenience of using plastic is actually
worth the cost. It may be difficult to avoid plastics in all aspects of
life, but surely you can find ways to reduce your dependence on plastic.
Since you can’t guarantee that everything you toss into the recycling
bin will actually end up at a recycling plant, reducing your dependence
on plastic is really the way to go.

Luckily for you, One Green Planet is here to help you break free from
plastic. Consider these 10 Life Hacks To Help You Get Plastic Out of The
Picture. Replace those microbeads with coffee grounds for your
exfoliating routine. Plan ahead to buy what you can in bulk without
packaging in order to avoid extra plastic. And think about storing your
produce in towels as opposed to plastic bags. Tell that plastic to take
a hike!

If you’re still itching for more, check out these 20 Switches to Get
Plastic Out of Your Life. There is a multitude of materials out there to
replace your plastic materials- stainless steel, glass, ceramic, bamboo,
canvas, etc. The possibilities are limitless!

Kicking plastic to the curb will take some effort. But doesn’t it sound
like the more convenient choice for the planet?

Together, we can take action and #CrushPlastic once and for all for the
sake of marine life – and importantly, us.

Let’s #CrushPlastic! Click the graphic below for more information.


Lead image source: Speakupforthevoiceless

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