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亚洲必赢官网app( ,拜天气变化所赐,大家不仅仅要适应更炎夏的气象,并且能吃到的美酒美酒佳肴佳肴美馔也更加少了。你最爱的部分美味的吃食也许在30年后就吃不到了,来寻访哪些食品会因为气候变化而“濒临灭绝的危险”?

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告诉题目:Quantifying the complex and dynamic impacts of climate
change on tree growth and carbon stocks in different forest ecosystems
of Australia, China, Europe and USA

 The oak tree is amongst the most commonly seen trees and can be found
in North America, Europe and in tropical regions of Asia. Majestic and
towering, oak trees (Quercus species) are valued for their wood,
appearance, fruit and importance to wildlife.    

1. Coffee 咖啡

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报告人:Zhihong Xu 教授

  The oak tree’s main trunk grows upward and branches out toward the
top. Under optimal climate and with enough water they can grow up to
more than 130 feet and live an average of 600 years. An oak tree’s roots
can grow nearly 5 feet In the first year of life and grow sideways to
form a deep, broad system to absorb water and minerals the
photosynthesis needs.

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亚洲必赢官网app( 3天底下变暖会使花变得更加香

单位:Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University,
Nathan, Brisbane

  It’s leaf is broad, thin and flat and is called a broadleaf. The shape
of the leaf may be ovate, obovate and sometimes, elliptic. The
characteristic features in an oak leaf are its lobes and sinuses (space
between the lobes). The leaves undertake photosynthesis to produce sugar
for the rest of the tree and mark the altering of seasons with their
fading colors.

Whether or not you try to limit yourself to one cup of coffee a day, the
effects of climate change on the world’s coffee-growing regions may
leave you little choice.

Its most ardent advocates say that global warming is gradually ruining
our parts of our planet。

告知时间:2015年八月 二十七日,清晨9:30

  Like all fruit-producing trees, oak tress all bloom in the spring and
are usually in full bloom by the time April arrives, because warmer
temperatures trigger increased sap production, which leads to the
formation of blooms. Oak trees produce both male and female flowers,
which means they self-pollinate. The male flowers hang in showy, long,
yellowish-green clusters called catkins. They produce a lot of pollen,
which clouds the air in mid-April and makes those who have tree
allergies rather miserable. The female flowers are much more
inconspicuous. They appear about a week after the male flowers. Nestled
against the base of twigs, they look much like tiny leaf buds and are
hard to see.



地址:南京金融大学大地质实验研商院 320开会地点

   Unique the acorns are, they have dark stripes along their length,
their caps have flat scale.

Coffee plantations in South America, Africa, Asia, and Hawaii are all
being threatened by rising air temperatures and erratic rainfall
patterns, which invite disease and invasive species to infest the coffee
plant and ripening beans. The result? Significant cuts in coffee yield
(and less coffee in your cup).

But the effects of the phenomenon might be felt more positively a little
closer to home, after scientists claimed that it will make flowers smell





Organizations like Australia’s Climate Institute estimate that, if
current climate patterns continue, half of the areas presently suitable
for coffee production won’t be by the year 2050.

Some flowers could give out a smell that is nine times more fragrant
than they currently produce, according to a report。

Tree water-use efficiency has increased in the past century, but this
has not translated into globally enhanced tree growth. The impact of
climate change, particularly atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ,
temperature and water, on plant photosynthesis, WUE and tree growth
remains elusive. We advance an atmospheric CO2-water limitation
mechanism, which predicts enhanced tree WUE with rising [CO2] and
increasing water limitation, and show that the growth of beech and oak
in temperate forest ecosystems of Belgium responded non-linearly to
rising [CO2] and water limitation induced by increasing mean annual
temperature and decreasing summer rainfall during 1840s–1990s. This
mechanism has been tested elsewhere, highlighting the subtropical to
boreal convergence of non-linear responses of tree growth to rising
[CO2], and the sensitivity and magnitude of tree growth responses to
be influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. The tipping points of
[CO2] (range: 324–378 ppm) for these forest ecosystems have been
reached in the past 10–50 years, and thereafter tree growth has
decreased with rising [讨论称整个世界变暖会使花越来越香,甘比举办写作亚洲必赢官网app(:。CO2]. This results in a positive feedback to
atmospheric [CO2], leading to accelerated global warming and
increasing water limitation in central Europe and elsewhere.




2. Chocolate 巧克力

It says that a temperature increase of between 1C (34F) – 5C (41F) will
vastly increase the ability of flowers to produce their sweet smells。

In the past 30 years, Prof.Zhihong Xu has undertaken research projects
extensively in: biogeochemical processes of carbon and nutrient cycling;
development and application of stable isotope, biomolecular and
physiological technologies for assessing both genetic and environmental
controls of plant water and nutrient use efficiency; soil fertility and
plant nutrition; development and application of advanced stable isotope,
nuclear magnetic resonance and biomolecular technologies for studying
important biogeochemical processes; and innovative tree ring
technologies for unravelling long-term impacts of climate change on
biogeochemical cycles, ecosystem productivity and biodiversity.

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Prof. Xu has been Director of Environmental Futures Research Institute
at Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, Queensland, since 2009. He has
published 236 refereed journal and conference papers (including 178
refereed journal papers) and 2 books, with 156 refereed papers (136
journal papers) in the past 10 years. He has secured more than A$20M of
external funding support, with most coming from national competitive
grants. He is the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Soils and Sediments (SCI
IF 2012: 1.965 and an average SCI IF of 2.698 for the 6 years
between 2007 and 2012, No. 2 in the 32 Soil Science journals
according to the 6-year average SCI IF, just after the 6-year average
SCI IF of 3.147 for Soil Biol. Biochem. (SCI IF 2012: 3.654)), Editor of
Environmental Science & Pollution Research (SCI IF 2012: 2.618),
Consulting Editor of Plant and Soil (2005-2013) (SCI IF 2012: 2.638);
and regularly reviews manuscripts for 65 international journals. Prof.
Xu was a member of the Australian Research Council 2012 Excellence in
Research for Australia Committee of Environmental Sciences and
Engineering and a member of the ARC College of Experts (2008–10). Prof.
Xu is the Chair for the Forest Soils Working Group of International
Union of Soil Science since 2006.

Coffee’s culinary cousin, cacao (aka chocolate), is also suffering
stress from global warming’s rising temperatures. But for chocolate, it
isn’t the warmer climate alone that’s the problem. Cacao trees actually
prefer warmer climates… as long as that warmth is paired with high
humidity and abundant rain (i.e., a rainforest climate). According to
the 2014 report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC), the problem is, the higher temperatures projected for the
world’s leading chocolate-producing countries (Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana,
Indonesia) are not expected to be accompanied by an increase in
rainfall. So as higher temperatures sap more moisture from soil and
plants through evaporation, it’s unlikely that rainfall will increase
enough to offset this moisture loss.

The study, published in the journal Global Change Biology, suggests that
plants are able to produce more terpenes – the chemicals that give them
their smell – in hotter conditions。


通告在《全球变化生物学》(Global Change

In this same report, the IPCC predicts that these effects could reduce
cocoa production, which means 1 million less tons of bars, truffles, and
powder per year by 2020.

Despite the environmental risk linked to climate change, the effect on
flowers could also help bee populations as the stronger smells make
flowers easier to find and pollinate。



3.Tea 茶

It also found that the effect could be more significant in cooler
countries such as the UK and would have a stong impact on fruit trees。

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When it comes to tea (the world’s 2nd favorite beverage next to water),
warmer climates and erratic precipitation aren’t only shrinking the
world’s tea-growing regions, they’re also messing with its distinct

The finding comes as the unseasonably warm autumn weather this year has
led to reports that plants are being ‘tricked’ into blooming early。



For example, in India, researchers have already discovered that the
Indian Monsoon has brought more intense rainfall, which waterlogs plants
and dilutes tea flavor.

Guy Barter, chief horticultural adviser at the Royal Horticultural
Society (RHS), described the findings as interesting and said it could
have a significant effect on lightly scented flowers。


皇家园艺术家协会会(罗伊al Horticultural Society)首席园艺顾问Guy·Bart(GuyBarter)说,此番考察结果很有趣,天气变暖对香气淡的花有重大影响。

Recent research coming out of the University of Southampton suggests
that tea-producing areas in some places, notably East Africa, could
decline by as much as 55 percent by 2050 as precipitation and
temperatures change.

‘We think about climate change in terms of rising temperatures and sea
levels but there are more subtle potential effects which we have not
thought about,’ he told the Sunday Times。



Tea pickers are also feeling the impacts of climate change. During
harvest season, increased air temperatures are creating an increased
risk of heatstroke for field workers.

Last year, experts from the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change
warned the average global temperature had risen by 0.5C in 50 years。


二〇一八年,来自政坛间天气变化专委会(Intergovernmental Panel On Climate

4.Honey 蜂蜜

They predicted temperatures will increase by 3C over the next century,
causing a rise in sea levels, flooding, disease outbreaks and mass
migration of refugees。

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More than one-third of America’s honeybees have been lost to Colony
Collapse Disorder, but climate change is having its own effects on bee
behavior. According to a 2016 US Department of Agriculture study, rising
carbon dioxide levels are decreasing the protein levels in pollen — a
bee’s main food source. As a result, bees aren’t getting enough
nutrition, which in turn can lead to less reproduction and even eventual
die-off. As USDA plant physiologist Lewis Ziska puts it, “Pollen is
becoming junk food for bees.”

The researchers from the global ecology unit at the Autonomous
University of Barcelona looked at a variety of plants, including holm
oak, yellow fleabane, heather and Spanish broom。


根源圣地亚哥自治大学(the Autonomous University of

But that’s not the only way climate is messing with bees. Warmer
temperatures and earlier snow melt can trigger earlier spring flowering
of plants and trees; so early, in fact, that bees may still be in the
larva stage and not yet mature enough to pollinate them.

In the paper the researchers said: ‘The species with the highest
increases in emissions were those with the lowest [fragrance] rates.’



The fewer worker bees to pollinate, the less honey they’re able to make.
And that means fewer crops too, since our fruits and vegetables exist
thanks to the tireless flight and pollination by our native bees.

‘The increases calculated for floral terpene emissions indicate that
very significant increases in the amount of floral scents will likely
occur in a warmer world。



5.Seafood 海鲜

‘The rates of floral terpene emission by the end of the century could
increase 0.34-9.1-fold for a 5C increase in mean maximum temperature
during the flowering peak of the season.’

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Climate change is affecting the world’s aquaculture as much as its


As air temperatures rise, oceans and waterways absorb some of the heat
and undergo warming of their own. The result is a decline in fish
population, including in lobsters (who are cold-blooded creatures), and
salmon (whose eggs find it hard to survive in higher water temps).
Warmer waters also encourage toxic marine bacteria, like Vibrio, to grow
and cause illness in humans whenever ingested with raw seafood, like
oysters or sashimi.


And that satisfying “crack” you get when eating crab and lobster? It
could be silenced as shellfish struggle to build their calcium carbonate
shells, a result of ocean acidification (absorb carbon dioxide from the


Even worse is the possibility of no longer eating seafood at all, which
according to a 2006 Dalhousie University study, is a possibility. In
this study, scientists predicted that if over-fishing and rising
temperature trends continued at their present rate, the world’s seafood
stocks would run out by the year 2050.


6.Rice 米饭

亚洲必赢官网app( 8

When it comes to rice, our changing climate is more of a threat to the
growing method than to the grains themselves.


Rice farming is done in flooded fields (called paddies), but as
increased global temperatures bring more frequent and more intense
droughts, the world’s rice-growing regions may not have enough water to
flood fields to the proper level (usually 5 inches deep). This could
make the cultivating this nutritious staple crop more difficult.


7.Wheat 小麦

亚洲必赢官网app( 9

A recent study involving Kansas State University researchers finds that
in the coming decades, at least one-quarter of the world’s wheat
production will be lost to extreme weather and water stress if no
adaptive measures are taken.


Researchers found that the effects from climate change and its
increasing temperatures on wheat will be more severe than once projected
and are happening sooner than expected. While increases in the average
temperature are problematic, a bigger challenge is the extreme
temperatures that are resulting from climate change. Researchers also
found that increasing temperatures are shortening the time frame that
wheat plants have to mature and produce full heads for harvest,
resulting in less grain produced from each plant.


According to a study released by the Postdam Institute for Climate
Impact Research, corn and soybean plants can lose 5% of their harvest
for every day temperatures climb above 86 °F (30 °C). (Corn plants are
especially sensitive to heat waves and drought). At this rate, future
harvests of wheat, soybeans, and corn could drop by up to 50 percent.


8.Orchard Fruits 果园的水果

亚洲必赢官网app( 10

Peaches and cherries, two favorite stone fruits of the summer season,
may in fact suffer at the hands of too much heat.


According to David Lobell, deputy director of the Center on Food
Security and the Environment at Stanford University, fruit trees
(including cherry, plum, pear, and apricot) require “chilling hours”— a
period of time when they’re exposed to temperatures below 45° F (7° C)
each winter. Skip the required cold, and fruit and nut trees struggle to
break dormancy and flower in the spring. Ultimately, this means a drop
in the amount and quality of fruit that’s produced.


By the year 2030, scientists estimate the number of 45°F or colder days
during winter will have lessened significantly.


9.Maple Syrup 枫糖浆

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Rising temperatures in the Northeast US and Canada have negatively
impacted sugar maple trees, including dulling the trees’ fall foliage
and stressing the tree to the point of decline. But while the total
retreat of sugar maples out of the US may still be several decades away,
climate is already wreaking havoc on its most prized products — maple
syrup — today.

U.S.东西部和加拿大升起的天气温度一度对枫树产生了负面影响,富含让枫树叶子颜色变浅,让枫树在压力下凋零。就算距离糖枫从United States一丝一毫消灭可能还会有数十年时间,但现行反革命天气变化已经让宝贵的枫糖浆严重受到损害。

For one, warmer winters and yo-yo winters (periods of cold sprinkled
with periods of unseasonable warmth) in the Northeast have shortened the
“sugaring season” — the period when temperatures are mild enough to coax
trees to turn stored-up starches into sugar sap, but not warm enough to
trigger budding. (When trees bud, sap is said to become less palatable).

率先,United States东南部的暖冬和乍暖乍寒的天气裁减了枫树的“化糖期”——在气象不冷不热而天气温度又不会暖到催动枫树抽芽时,枫树会将积攒的类脂转化为糖浆。据他们说当枫树发芽时,枫糖浆就不会那么好吃了。

Too-hot temperatures have also lessened the maple sap’s sweetness. “What
we found was that after years when trees produced a lot of seeds, there
was less sugar in the sap,” says Tufts University ecologist Elizabeth
Crone. Crone explains that when trees are more stressed out, they drop
more seeds. “They’ll invest more of their resources in producing seeds
that can hopefully go somewhere else where the environmental conditions
are better.” This means it takes more gallons of sap to make a pure
gallon of maple syrup with the required 70% sugar content. Twice as many
gallons, to be exact.


10.Peanuts 花生

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Peanuts (and peanut butter) may be one of the simplest of snacks, but
the peanut plant is considered to be fairly fussy, even among farmers.


Peanut plants grow best when they get five months of consistently warm
weather and 20-40 inches of rain. Anything less and plants won’t
survive, much less produce pods. That isn’t good news when you consider
most climate models agree the climate of the future will be one of
extremes, including droughts and heatwaves.


In 2011, the world caught a glimpse of the peanut’s future fate when
drought conditions across the peanut-growing Southeastern US led many
plants to wither and die from heat stress. According to CNN Money, the
dry spell caused peanut prices to rise by as much as 40 percent!