来会见2018届巴黎高等师范毕业生的十大特色,扎克伯格亚洲必赢官网app(

亚洲必赢官网app( 2

来会见2018届巴黎高等师范毕业生的十大特色,扎克伯格亚洲必赢官网app(

亚洲必赢官网app( 1

10多年前,马克·扎克伯格为创办Facebook辍学,今天,他将到哈佛大学毕业典礼上进行演讲,并接受该大学颁发的学位。5月25号,扎克伯格作为演讲嘉宾出席哈佛大学第366届毕业典礼。在此之前,谦虚的小扎还向「辍学创业界」的老前辈比尔·盖茨询问了意见,因为在十年前,比尔盖茨也同样的身份出现在哈佛的毕业典礼上昨天下午,扎克伯格已经重回到母校哈佛,并回到了自己读书时曾经住过的寝室,用Facebook
Live在那里做起了直播。

亚洲必赢官网app( 2

http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/09/07/college-calculus

1. An anxious generation.

扎克伯格(Mark
Zuckerberg)来到当时住过的学生宿舍,回忆起当时与室友生活的趣事,包括曾经喜欢的小吃、窄小的床铺及室友间的恶作剧;并介绍了自己当时正是在宿舍的一个小桌子上编写Facebook的第一个版本。扎克伯格还到不同的宿舍与学弟聊天,分享自己创业的故事。扎克伯格谈到他在大学期间创立的Facemash网站,这个网站可以查询到哈佛所有学生的照片和个人信息,并投票出人气最高的学生,瞬间就造成强大反响,当他试图关闭这个网站时却发现无法登陆电脑,因为哈佛认为该网站侵犯隐私,要切断他宿舍的网络。正是在此之后,扎克伯格开始撰写Facebook网站的代码,并辍学创业。

It’s a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession
of a good fortune, must beintroduceda single girl.Iwasone of them.When I
went back home last time, my anut asked me one question, she
said:”someone want to arrange a blind date for you.Would you go?”at that
time, I was angry.you didn’t fail to catch my words. I answered:”I don’t
like this,”As I have never imaged I would be arranged to make a blind
date before that time.

If there is one thing most Americans have been able to agree on over the
years, it is that getting an education, particularly a college
education, is a key to human betterment and prosperity. The consensus
dates back at least to 1636, when the legislature of the Massachusetts
Bay Colony established Harvard College as America’s first institution of
higher learning. It extended through the establishment of “land-grant
colleges” during and after the Civil War, the passage of the G.I. Bill
during the Second World War, the expansion of federal funding for higher
education during the Great Society era, and President Obama’s efforts to
make college more affordable. Already, the cost of higher education has
become a big issue in the 2016 Presidential campaign. Three Democratic
candidates—Hillary Clinton, Martin O’Malley, and Bernie Sanders—have
offered plans to reform the student-loan program and make college more
accessible.

焦虑的一代

时隔13年再次回到校园,扎克伯格已不再是当年一无所有的毛头少年,而是坐拥4000亿美元市值公司的科技业老大。此次陪同扎克伯格的还有他的妻子Priscilla
Chan,两人还回忆起当时的恋爱故事,Priscilla
Chan称,大学时候她每天早晨5点起床,可是扎克伯格却刚开始睡觉,两人作息时间完全相反。扎克伯格解释称,写程序需要安静的环境,没有人打扰。

The Chinese meaning of blind dates is Xiang Qin.Maybe blind date is far
away from you now.If you find your husband or wife by blind dates, let’s
go back to the time when you meeteach otherat the first time. I can
image you are very nervous. As going on a blind date is highly
adventurous! You never know who you are meeting and what it may lead to.

Promoters of higher education have long emphasized its role in meeting
civic needs. The Puritans who established Harvard were concerned about a
shortage of clergy; during the Progressive Era, John Dewey insisted that
a proper education would make people better citizens, with enlarged
moral imaginations. Recently, as wage stagnation and rising inequality
have emerged as serious problems, the economic arguments for higher
education have come to the fore. “Earning a post-secondary degree or
credential is no longer just a pathway to opportunity for a talented
few,” the White House Web site states. “Rather, it is a prerequisite for
the growing jobs of the new economy.” Commentators and academic
economists have claimed that college doesn’t merely help individuals get
higher-paying jobs; it raises wages throughout the economy and helps
ameliorate rising inequality. In an influential 2008 book, “The Race
Between Education and Technology,” the Harvard economists Claudia Goldin
and Lawrence F. Katz argued that technological progress has dramatically
increased the demand for skilled workers, and that, in recent decades,
the American educational system has failed to meet the challenge by
supplying enough graduates who can carry out the tasks that a high-tech
economy requires. “Not so long ago, the American economy grew rapidly
and wages grew in tandem, with education playing a large, positive role
in both,” they wrote in a subsequent paper. “The challenge now is to
revitalize education-based mobility.”

Among the class of 2018, 41% have at some point sought mental health
support from the university’s health services. About 15% had also sought
support off campus. It’s a striking reminder that these young people
have studied at a time of rising concerns about stress and wellbeing on
campus.

此次是扎克伯格13后年第一次回到校园,他将在毕业典礼上发表演讲,并接受哈佛授予的学位。对!辍学13年的扎克伯格终于要毕业了。在演讲中,扎克伯格说道,也许他不是来哈佛演讲的适合人选,因为他和在座的同学几乎是一代人。他回顾了自己收到录取信的时刻,以及在大学上的第一门课(包括他在课上穿反了衣服的细节)。他回顾了与妻子
Priscilla
相遇的过程,以及如何决定中断学业。此次,他演讲的主题是“目标”(purpose),然而他不是让在座的毕业生们明白自己的目标,而是希望他们能创造一个人人都有目标的世界。对此,扎克伯格提出了三种方式:共同创造有意义的项目,对每个人都有平等自由来追求目标重下定义,在世界范围内建立社区。

So some 20s and 30s don’t like blind dates to find the Mr or Ms
Right.More than 30 percent of university students were pressured by
their families to attend blind date when they returned home.Blind date
has become especially popularwhen thenumber of
so-called”leftover”peopleis rising,they thinkit’sincreasingly hard to
find a mate.But some students believe blind date would make them feel
no”passion for love”at all.Some of them would like to find their true
love in a way they like and not by the standards of their parents, so do
I.

The “message from the media, from the business community, and even from
many parts of the government has been that a college degree is more
important than ever in order to have a good career,” Peter Cappelli, a
professor of management at Wharton, notes in his informative and
refreshingly skeptical new book, “Will College Pay Off?”
(PublicAffairs). “As a result, families feel even more pressure to send
their kids to college. This is at a time when more families find those
costs to be a serious burden.” During recent decades, tuition and other
charges have risen sharply—many colleges charge more than fifty thousand
dollars a year in tuition and fees. Even if you factor in the expansion
of financial aid, Cappelli reports, “students in the United States pay
about four times more than their peers in countries elsewhere.”

在2018届哈佛毕业生中,有41%的人曾向学校的健康服务部门寻求过精神健康方面的帮助。另有大约15%的人在校外咨询过心理健康问题。这些惊人的数据提醒我们,年轻的学子们心理压力较大,人们对校园压力和心理健康问题也愈加担心。

来看看他的演讲全程:

But the other people are not like this. They are military,

Despite the increasing costs—and the claims about a shortage of college
graduates—the number of people attending and graduating from four-year
educational institutions keeps going up. In the 2000-01 academic year,
American colleges awarded almost 1.3 million bachelor’s degrees. A
decade later, the figure had jumped nearly forty per cent, to more than
1.7 million. About seventy per cent of all high-school graduates now go
on to college, and half of all Americans between the ages of twenty-five
and thirty-four have a college degree. That’s a big change. In 1980,
only one in six Americans twenty-five and older were college graduates.
Fifty years ago, it was fewer than one in ten. To cater to all the new
students, colleges keep expanding and adding courses, many of them
vocationally inclined. At Kansas State, undergraduates can major in
Bakery Science and Management or Wildlife and Outdoor Enterprise
Management. They can minor in Unmanned Aircraft Systems or Pet Food
Science. Oklahoma State offers a degree in Fire Protection and Safety
Engineering and Technology. At Utica College, you can major in Economic
Crime Detection.

2. More than one in five leave Harvard as virgins.

President Faust, Board of Overseers, faculty, alumni, friends, proud
parents, members of the ad board, and graduates of the greatest
university in the world,

Military blind date attracts hundreds young women to attend on October
22in last year.These young women came from different careers and
backgrounds in Wuhan and all wished to be married to a military
officer.You may find it hard to image thatthe women outnumbered the
men.There wereten soldiers and their wives made their marriage vows in
preparation of the event. It showedus that the blind dates have more
upsides than downsides when both have the clearly purpose. The young
women wish to be married to a military officer, so the blind date is a
good way for them.

In the fast-growing for-profit college sector, which now accounts for
more than ten per cent of all students, vocational degrees are the norm.
DeVry University—which last year taught more than sixty thousand
students, at more than seventy-five campuses—offers majors in everything
from multimedia design and development to health-care administration. On
its Web site, DeVry boasts, “In 2013, 90% of DeVry University associate
and bachelor’s degree grads actively seeking employment had careers in
their field within six months of graduation.” That sounds
impressive—until you notice that the figure includes those graduates who
had jobs in their field before graduation. (Many DeVry students are
working adults who attend college part-time to further their careers.)
Nor is the phrase “in their field” clearly defined. “Would you be okay
rolling the dice on a degree in communications based on information like
that?” Cappelli writes. He notes that research by the nonprofit National
Association of Colleges and Employers found that, in the same year, just
6.5 per cent of graduates with communications degrees were offered jobs
in the field. It may be unfair to single out DeVry, which is one of the
more reputable for-profit education providers. But the example
illustrates Cappelli’s larger point: many of the claims that are made
about higher education don’t stand up to scrutiny.

超过1/5的学生毕业时没有性经历

I’m honored to be with you today because, let’s face it, you
accomplished something I never could. If I get through this speech,
it’ll be the first time I actually finish something at Harvard. Class of
2017, congratulations!

In addition, the blind dates can be found from the TV, Jinxing’s
program,“Chinese Dating”. The parents help to choose the partner. There
are ten programs of Chinese Dating. And many young people found their
lover to start a new journey.

“It is certainly true that college has been life changing for most
people and a tremendous financial investment for many of them,” Cappelli
writes. “It is also true that for some people, it has been financially
crippling. . . .The world of college education is different now than it
was a generation ago, when many of the people driving policy decisions
on education went to college, and the theoretical ideas about why
college should pay off do not comport well with the reality.”

There was a similar number who had never had any “dating” experience
while at university. Where dating did take place, dating apps were used
by 69%. But more than a fifth of these new graduates reported having
been “sexually harassed” at some point during their time as students.

I’m an unlikely speaker, not just because I dropped out, but because
we’re technically in the same generation. We walked this yard less than
a decade apart, studied the same ideas and slept through the same Ec10
lectures. We may have taken different paths to get here, especially if
you came all the way from the Quad, but today I want to share what I’ve
learned about our generation and the world we’re building together.

WhenIsearched these materials,Ifound blind dates have more upsides than
downsides. The best thing about blind dates is that they exclude the
feeling of guilt and duty. You can easily reject your admirer in case
you don’t like him. You meet a new person, you have a boundless amount
of topics to discuss.Chances are you meet a good friend or even you
date. Who knows?But blind dates may give youanotherpossibility.Before
joining a blind date, if you know what you want, you will find blind
dates have more upsides than downsides. Thanks.

No idea has had more influence on education policy than the notion that
colleges teach their students specific, marketable skills, which they
can use to get a good job. Economists refer to this as the “human
capital” theory of education, and for the past twenty or thirty years it
has gone largely unchallenged. If you’ve completed a two-year
associate’s degree, you’ve got more “human capital” than a high-school
graduate. And if you’ve completed a four-year bachelor’s degree you’ve
got more “human capital” than someone who attended a community college.
Once you enter the labor market, the theory says, you will be rewarded
with a better job, brighter career prospects, and higher wages.

大约同样人数的毕业生从未在大学里“约会”过。在曾有过约会经历的毕业生中,69%的人表示曾使用过手机约会软件。但有超过五分之一的毕业生表示曾在校园内遭遇“性骚扰”。

But first, the last couple of days have brought back a lot of good
memories.

There’s no doubt that college graduates earn more money, on average,
than people who don’t have a degree. And for many years the so-called
“college wage premium” grew. In 1970, according to a recent study by
researchers at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, people with a
bachelor’s degree earned about sixty thousand dollars a year, on
average, and people with a high-school diploma earned about forty-five
thousand dollars. Thirty-five years later, in 2005, the average earnings
of college graduates had risen to more than seventy thousand dollars,
while high-school graduates had seen their earnings fall slightly. (All
these figures are inflation-adjusted.) The fact that the college wage
premium went up at a time when the supply of graduates was expanding
significantly seemed to confirm the Goldin-Katz theory that
technological change was creating an ever-increasing demand for workers
with a lot of human capital.

3. Liberals in a Trump era.

How many of you remember exactly what you were doing when you got that
email telling you that you got into Harvard? I was playing Civilization
and I ran downstairs, got my dad, and for some reason, his reaction was
to video me opening the email. That could have been a really sad video.
I swear getting into Harvard is still the thing my parents are most
proud of me for.

During the past decade or so, however, a number of things have happened
that don’t easily mesh with that theory. If college graduates remain in
short supply, their wages should still be rising. But they aren’t. In
2001, according to the Economic Policy Institute, a liberal think tank
in Washington, workers with undergraduate degrees (but not graduate
degrees) earned, on average, $30.05 an hour; last year, they earned
$29.55 an hour. Other sources show even more dramatic falls. “Between
2001 and 2013, the average wage of workers with a bachelor’s degree
declined 10.3 percent, and the average wage of those with an associate’s
degree declined 11.1 percent,” the New York Fed reported in its study.
Wages have been falling most steeply of all among newly minted college
graduates. And jobless rates have been rising. In 2007, 5.5 per cent of
college graduates under the age of twenty-five were out of work. Today,
the figure is close to nine per cent. If getting a bachelor’s degree is
meant to guarantee entry to an arena in which jobs are plentiful and
wages rise steadily, the education system has been failing for some
time.

特朗普时代的自由派

What about your first lecture at Harvard? Mine was Computer Science 121
with the incredible Harry Lewis. I was late so I threw on a t-shirt and
didn’t realize until afterwards it was inside out and backwards with my
tag sticking out the front. I couldn’t figure out why no one would talk
to me — except one guy, KX Jin, he just went with it. We ended up doing
our problem sets together, and now he runs a big part of Facebook. And
that, Class of 2017, is why you should be nice to people.

And, while college graduates are still doing a lot better than
nongraduates, some studies show that the earnings gap has stopped
growing. The figures need careful parsing. If you lump college graduates
in with people with advanced degrees, the picture looks brighter. But
almost all the recent gains have gone to folks with graduate degrees.
“The four-year-degree premium has remained flat over the past decade,”
the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland reported. And one of the main
reasons it went up in the first place wasn’t that college graduates were
enjoying significantly higher wages. It was that the earnings of
nongraduates were falling.

Politically these young graduates, who began at Harvard during the Obama
administration, are opponents of the current presidency, with 72% saying
the US is going in the wrong direction. Only 3% of those who voted
backed Donald Trump, and two-thirds of these graduates describe
themselves as liberal or very liberal.

亚洲必赢官网app( ,But my best memory from Harvard was meeting Priscilla. I had just
launched this prank website Facemash, and the ad board wanted to “see
me”. Everyone thought I was going to get kicked out. My parents came to
help me pack. My friends threw me a going away party. As luck would have
it, Priscilla was at that party with her friend. We met in line for the
bathroom in the Pfoho Belltower, and in what must be one of the all time
romantic lines, I said: “I’m going to get kicked out in three days, so
we need to go on a date quickly.”

Many students and their families extend themselves to pay for a college
education out of fear of falling into the low-wage economy. That’s
perfectly understandable. But how sound an investment is it? One way to
figure this out is to treat a college degree like a stock or a bond and
compare the cost of obtaining one with the accumulated returns that it
generates over the years. (In this case, the returns come in the form of
wages over and above those earned by people who don’t hold degrees.)
When the research firm PayScale did this a few years ago, it found that
the average inflation-adjusted return on a college education is about
seven per cent, which is a bit lower than the historical rate of return
on the stock market. Cappelli cites this study along with one from the
Hamilton Project, a Washington-based research group that came up with a
much higher figure—about fifteen per cent—but by assuming, for example,
that all college students graduate in four years. (In fact, the
four-year graduation rate for full-time, first-degree students is less
than forty per cent, and the six-year graduation rate is less than sixty
per cent.)

这一届毕业生入学时,时任美国总统是奥巴马。因此在政治倾向上,多数人是特朗普的反对者。有72%的毕业生表示,美国正在“误入歧途”。只有3%的毕业生支持特朗普。三分之二的毕业生表示自己是“自由主义者”或“非常自由主义”。

Actually, any of you graduating can use that line.

来会见2018届巴黎高等师范毕业生的十大特色,扎克伯格亚洲必赢官网app(。These types of studies, and there are lots of them, usually find that
the financial benefits of getting a college degree are much larger than
the financial costs. But Cappelli points out that for parents and
students the average figures may not mean much, because they disguise
enormous differences in outcomes from school to school. He cites a
survey, carried out by PayScale for Businessweek in 2012, that showed
that students who attend M.I.T., Caltech, and Harvey Mudd College enjoy
an annual return of more than ten per cent on their “investment.” But
the survey also found almost two hundred colleges where students, on
average, never fully recouped the costs of their education. “The big
news about the payoff from college should be the incredible variation in
it across colleges,” Cappelli writes. “Looking at the actual return on
the costs of attending college, careful analyses suggest that the payoff
from many college programs—as much as one in four—is actually negative.
Incredibly, the schools seem to add nothing to the market value of the
students.”

4. Campus free speech?

I didn’t end up getting kicked out — I did that to myself. Priscilla
and I started dating. And, you know, that movie made it seem like
Facemash was so important to creating Facebook. It wasn’t. But without
Facemash I wouldn’t have met Priscilla, and she’s the most important
person in my life, so you could say it was the most important thing I
built in my time here.

So what purpose does college really serve for students and employers?
Before the human-capital theory became so popular, there was another
view of higher education—as, in part, a filter, or screening device,
that sorted individuals according to their aptitudes and conveyed this
information to businesses and other hiring institutions. By completing a
four-year degree, students could signal to potential employers that they
had a certain level of cognitive competence and could carry out assigned
tasks and work in a group setting. But a college education didn’t
necessarily imbue students with specific work skills that employers
needed, or make them more productive.

校园言论自由?

We’ve all started lifelong friendships here, and some of us even
families. That’s why I’m so grateful to this place. Thanks, Harvard.

Kenneth Arrow, one of the giants of twentieth-century economics, came up
with this account, and if you take it seriously you can’t assume that
it’s always a good thing to persuade more people to go to college. If
almost everybody has a college degree, getting one doesn’t differentiate
you from the pack. To get the job you want, you might have to go to a
fancy (and expensive) college, or get a higher degree. Education turns
into an arms race, which primarily benefits the arms manufacturers—in
this case, colleges and universities.

There were signs that students are self-censoring their views and not
debating openly. About two-thirds of students had “at some point chosen
not to express an opinion in an academic setting out of fear it would
offend others”. This was particularly the case for Republican
supporters. But almost half of students wanted to have “trigger
warnings” if courses were going to include something that could be
upsetting or offensive.

Today I want to talk about purpose. But I’m not here to give you the
standard commencement about finding your purpose. We’re millennials.
We’ll try to do that instinctively. Instead, I’m here to tell you
finding your purpose isn’t enough. The challenge for our generation is
creating a world where everyone has a sense of purpose.

The screening model isn’t very fashionable these days, partly because it
seems perverse to suggest that education doesn’t boost productivity. But
there’s quite a bit of evidence that seems to support Arrow’s theory. In
recent years, more jobs have come to demand a college degree as an entry
requirement, even though the demands of the jobs haven’t changed much.
Some nursing positions are on the list, along with jobs for executive
secretaries, salespeople, and distribution managers. According to one
study, just twenty per cent of executive assistants and insurance-claims
clerks have college degrees but more than forty-five per cent of the job
openings in the field require one. “This suggests that employers may be
relying on a B.A. as a broad recruitment filter that may or may not
correspond to specific capabilities needed to do the job,” the study
concluded.

有迹象表明,哈佛学生会自审其观点,不会公开辩论。大约三分之二的学生“曾因担心冒犯他人,而选择在学术场合不公开表达意见”,特别是共和党的支持者。不过,近半数学生表示,如果课程将要讲到令人不快或感到冒犯的内容时,会“提出警告”。

One of my favorite stories is when John F Kennedy visited the NASA space
center, he saw a janitor carrying a broom and he walked over and asked
what he was doing. The janitor responded: “Mr. President, I’m helping
put a man on the moon”.

It is well established that students who go to élite colleges tend to
earn more than graduates of less selective institutions. But is this
because Harvard and Princeton do a better job of teaching valuable
skills than other places, or because employers believe that they get
more talented students to begin with? An exercise carried out by Lauren
Rivera, of the Kellogg School of Management, at Northwestern, strongly
suggests that it’s the latter. Rivera interviewed more than a hundred
recruiters from investment banks, law firms, and management consulting
firms, and she found that they recruited almost exclusively from the
very top-ranked schools, and simply ignored most other applicants. The
recruiters didn’t pay much attention to things like grades and majors.
“It was not the content of education that elite employers valued but
rather its prestige,” Rivera concluded.

5. Raising a glass.

Purpose is that sense that we are part of something bigger than
ourselves, that we are needed, that we have something better ahead to
work for. Purpose is what creates true happiness.

If higher education serves primarily as a sorting mechanism, that might
help explain another disturbing development: the tendency of many
college graduates to take jobs that don’t require college degrees.
Practically everyone seems to know a well-educated young person who is
working in a bar or a mundane clerical job, because he or she can’t find
anything better. Doubtless, the Great Recession and its aftermath are
partly to blame. But something deeper, and more lasting, also seems to
be happening.

喝酒不吸烟

You’re graduating at a time when this is especially important. When our
parents graduated, purpose reliably came from your job, your church,
your community. But today, technology and automation are eliminating
many jobs. Membership in communities is declining. Many people feel
disconnected and depressed, and are trying to fill a void.

In the Goldin-Katz view of things, technological progress generates an
ever-increasing need for highly educated, highly skilled workers. But,
beginning in about 2000, for reasons that are still not fully
understood, the pace of job creation in high-paying, highly skilled
fields slowed significantly. To demonstrate this, three Canadian
economists, Paul Beaudry, David A. Green, and Benjamin M. Sand, divided
the U.S. workforce into a hundred occupations, ranked by their average
wages, and looked at how employment has changed in each category. Since
2000, the economists showed, the demand for highly educated workers
declined, while job growth in low-paying occupations increased strongly.
“High-skilled workers have moved down the occupational ladder and have
begun to perform jobs traditionally performed by lower-skilled workers,”
they concluded, thus “pushing low-skilled workers even further down the
occupational ladder.”

Alcohol has proved to be the most durable of student diversions. More
than 90% drink alcohol, and most drink every week. But tobacco has
virtually been entirely stubbed out. There are almost no regular
smokers, and more than three-quarters have never even once smoked
tobacco. More students had tried cannabis than tobacco.

As I’ve traveled around, I’ve sat with children in juvenile detention
and opioid addicts, who told me their lives could have turned out
differently if they just had something to do, an after school program or
somewhere to go. I’ve met factory workers who know their old jobs aren’t
coming back and are trying to find their place.

Increasingly, the competition for jobs is taking place in areas of the
labor market where college graduates didn’t previously tend to compete.
As Beaudry, Green, and Sand put it, “having a B.A. is less about
obtaining access to high paying managerial and technology jobs and more
about beating out less educated workers for the Barista or clerical
job.” Even many graduates in science, technology, engineering, and
mathematics—the so-called STEM subjects, which receive so much official
encouragement—are having a tough time getting the jobs they’d like.
Cappelli reports that only about a fifth of recent graduates with STEM
degrees got jobs that made use of that training. “The evidence for
recent grads suggests clearly that there is no overall shortage of STEM
grads,” he writes.

酒精一直深受美国学生们的青睐。有超过90%的毕业生表示自己平时饮酒,多数人每周都会喝。但他们不爱好吸烟。调查显示,这些毕业生中几乎没有人经常吸烟,超过四分之三的人从未吸过烟。尝试过大麻的学生要多于吸烟者。

To keep our society moving forward, we have a generational challenge —
to not only create new jobs, but create a renewed sense of purpose.

Why is this happening? The short answer is that nobody knows for sure.
One theory is that corporate cost-cutting, having thinned the ranks of
workers on the factory floor and in routine office jobs, is now
targeting supervisors, managers, and other highly educated people.
Another theory is that technological progress, after favoring highly
educated workers for a long time, is now turning on them. With rapid
advances in processing power, data analysis, voice recognition, and
other forms of artificial intelligence, computers can perform tasks that
were previously carried out by college graduates, such as analyzing
trends, translating foreign-language documents, and filing tax returns.
In “The Second Machine Age” (Norton), the M.I.T. professors Erik
Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee sketch a future where computers will
start replacing doctors, lawyers, and many other highly educated
professionals. “As digital labor becomes more pervasive, capable, and
powerful,” they write, “companies will be increasingly unwilling to pay
people wages that they’ll accept, and that will allow them to maintain
the standard of living to which they’ve been accustomed.”

6. School shootings.

I remember the night I launched Facebook from my little dorm in Kirkland
House. I went to Noch’s with my friend KX. I remember telling him I was
excited to connect the Harvard community, but one day someone would
connect the whole world.

Cappelli stresses the change in corporate hiring patterns. In the old
days, Fortune 500 companies such as General Motors, Citigroup, and
I.B.M. took on large numbers of college graduates and trained them for a
lifetime at the company. But corporations now invest less in education
and training, and, instead of promoting someone, or finding someone in
the company to fill a specialized role, they tend to hire from outside.
Grooming the next generation of leadership is much less of a concern.
“What employers want from college graduates now is the same thing they
want from applicants who have been out of school for years, and that is
job skills and the ability to contribute now,” Cappelli writes. “That
change is fundamental, and it is the reason that getting a good job out
of college is now such a challenge.”

支持校园控枪

The thing is, it never even occurred to me that someone might be us. We
were just college kids. We didn’t know anything about that. There were
all these big technology companies with resources. I just assumed one of
them would do it. But this idea was so clear to us — that all people
want to connect. So we just kept moving forward, day by day.

Obtaining a vocational degree or certificate is one strategy that many
students employ to make themselves attractive to employers, and, on the
face of it, this seems sensible. If you’d like to be a radiology
technician, shouldn’t you get a B.A. in radiology? If you want to run a
bakery, why not apply to Kansas State and sign up for that major in
Bakery Science? But narrowly focussed degrees are risky. “If you
graduate in a year when gambling is up and the casinos like your casino
management degree, you probably have hit it big,” Cappelli writes. “If
they aren’t hiring when you graduate, you may be even worse off getting
a first job with that degree anywhere else precisely because it was so
tuned to that group of employers.” During the dot-com era, enrollment in
computer-science and information-technology programs rose sharply. After
the bursting of the stock-market bubble, many of these graduates
couldn’t find work. “Employers who say that we need more engineers or IT
grads are not promising to hire them when they graduate in four years,”
Cappelli notes. “Pushing kids into a field like health care because
someone believes there is a need there now will not guarantee that they
all get jobs and, if they do, that those jobs will be as good as workers
in that field have now.”

There have been high-profile protests by young people in the US in the
wake of school shootings. Harvard students backed calls to restrict
access to firearms, with almost nine in 10 supporting tighter gun
control.

I know a lot of you will have your own stories just like this. A change
in the world that seems so clear you’re sure someone else will do it.
But they won’t. You will.

So what’s the solution? Some people believe that online learning will
provide a viable low-cost alternative to a live-in college education.
Bernie Sanders would get rid of tuition fees at public universities,
raising some of the funds with a new tax on financial transactions.
Clinton and O’Malley would also expand federal support for state
universities, coupling this funding with lower interest rates on student
loans and incentives for colleges to hold down costs. Another approach
is to direct more students and resources to two-year community colleges
and other educational institutions that cost less than four-year
colleges. President Obama recently called for all qualified high-school
students to be guaranteed a place in community college, and for tuition
fees to be eliminated. Such policies would reverse recent history. In a
new book, “Learning by Doing: The Real Connection between Innovation,
Wages, and Wealth” (Yale), James Bessen, a technology entrepreneur who
also teaches at Boston University School of Law, points out that “the
policy trend over the last decade has been to starve community colleges
in order to feed four-year colleges, especially private research
universities.” Some of the discrepancies are glaring. Richard Vedder,
who teaches economics at Ohio University, calculated that in 2010
Princeton, which had an endowment of close to fifteen billion dollars,
received state and federal benefits equivalent to roughly fifty thousand
dollars per student, whereas the nearby College of New Jersey got
benefits of just two thousand dollars per student. There are sound
reasons for rewarding excellence and sponsoring institutions that do
important scientific research. But is a twenty-five-to-one difference in
government support really justified?

在美国发生多起校园枪击案后,年轻人高调举行抗议活动。哈佛毕业生也支持控枪,调查显示,近九成毕业生支持加强枪支管控。

But it’s not enough to have purpose yourself. You have to create a sense
of purpose for others.

Perhaps the strongest argument for caring about higher education is that
it can increase social mobility, regardless of whether the human-capital
theory or the signalling theory is correct. A recent study by
researchers at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco showed that
children who are born into households in the poorest fifth of the income
distribution are six times as likely to reach the top fifth if they
graduate from college. Providing access to college for more kids from
deprived backgrounds helps nurture talents that might otherwise go to
waste, and it’s the right thing to do. (Of course, if college attendance
were practically universal, having a degree would send a weaker signal
to employers.) But increasing the number of graduates seems unlikely to
reverse the over-all decline of high-paying jobs, and it won’t resolve
the income-inequality problem, either. As the economist Lawrence Summers
and two colleagues showed in a recent simulation, even if we magically
summoned up college degrees for a tenth of all the working-age American
men who don’t have them—by historical standards, a big boost in
college-graduation rates—we’d scarcely change the existing concentration
of income at the very top of the earnings distribution, where C.E.O.s
and hedge-fund managers live.

7. Smart students, smartphones.

I found that out the hard way. You see, my hope was never to build a
company, but to make an impact. And as all these people started joining
us, I just assumed that’s what they cared about too, so I never
explained what I hoped we’d build.

Being more realistic about the role that college degrees play would help
families and politicians make better choices. It could also help us
appreciate the actual merits of a traditional broad-based education,
often called a liberal-arts education, rather than trying to reduce
everything to an economic cost-benefit analysis. “To be clear, the idea
is not that there will be a big financial payoff to a liberal arts
degree,” Cappelli writes. “It is that there is no guarantee of a payoff
from very practical, work-based degrees either, yet that is all those
degrees promise. For liberal arts, the claim is different and seems more
accurate, that it will enrich your life and provide lessons that extend
beyond any individual job. There are centuries of experience providing
support for that notion.” ♦

聪明学生,智能手机

A couple years in, some big companies wanted to buy us. I didn’t want to
sell. I wanted to see if we could connect more people. We were building
the first News Feed, and I thought if we could just launch this, it
could change how we learn about the world.

This is a cohort of students completely immersed in digital technology.
Almost all of these new graduates own a smartphone, which are so
prevalent that they’re almost taken for granted. There is a strong bias
towards iPhones, used by 87% of those leaving Harvard, with 80% using
some other Apple computer device.

Nearly everyone else wanted to sell. Without a sense of higher purpose,
this was the startup dream come true. It tore our company apart. After
one tense argument, an advisor told me if I didn’t agree to sell, I
would regret the decision for the rest of my life. Relationships were so
frayed that within a year or so every single person on the management
team was gone.

现在的学生们完全沉浸在数字时代中。智能手机非常普遍,几乎所有毕业生人手一部,并对此习以为然。他们对苹果手机情有独钟,87%的哈佛毕业生使用苹果手机,80%的毕业生还使用苹果电脑。

That was my hardest time leading Facebook. I believed in what we were
doing, but I felt alone. And worse, it was my fault. I wondered if I was
just wrong, an imposter, a 22 year-old kid who had no idea how the world
worked.

8. Harvard introduced an honour code in which students promised not to
engage in academic cheating.

Now, years later, I understand thatishow things work with no sense of
higher purpose. It’s up to us to create it so we can all keep moving
forward together.

哈佛大学引入诚信守则,学生承诺学术诚信

Today I want to talk about three ways to create a world where everyone
has a sense of purpose: by taking on big meaningful projects together,
by redefining equality so everyone has the freedom to pursue purpose,
and by building community across the world.

But this survey suggests that this has not changed behaviour and that
levels of cheating have remained broadly the same, with about a fifth of
students owning up to having cheated at some stage. Very few of these
say that this was detected.

First, let’s take on big meaningful projects.

但此次调查表明,这并没能改变学生们的行为,学术欺骗的程度与以往大致相当。大约五分之一的毕业生承认曾经作弊。只有极少数人表示作弊被发现。

Our generation will have to deal with tens of millions of jobs replaced
by automation like self-driving cars and trucks. But we have the
potential to do so much more together.

9. Widening access.

Every generation has its defining works. More than 300,000 people worked
to put a man on the moon – including that janitor. Millions of
volunteers immunized children around the world against polio. Millions
of more people built the Hoover dam and other great projects.

如何招生惹争议

These projects didn’t just provide purpose for the people doing those
jobs, they gave our whole country a sense of pride that we could do
great things.

Entrance to top universities is always controversial. More than 60% back
the principle of affirmative action and prioritising the admission of
some students based on ethnicity. It was most popular among black and
Hispanic graduates and least popular among Asian and white graduates.

Now it’s our turn to do great things. I know, you’re probably thinking:
I don’t know how to build a dam, or get a million people involved in
anything.

世界顶级学府的入学机制一直备受争议。超过60%的哈佛毕业生支持“平权法案”,认为学校应当优先录取某些种族的生源。非洲裔和西班牙裔毕业生最支持这项政策,而亚裔和白人学生最不欢迎。

But let me tell you a secret: no one does when they begin. Ideas don’t
come out fully formed. They only become clear as you work on them. You
just have to get started.

10. What next?

If I had to understand everything about connecting people before I
began, I never would have started Facebook.

毕业去向较为集中

Movies and pop culture get this all wrong. The idea of a single eureka
moment is a dangerous lie. It makes us feel inadequate since we haven’t
had ours. It prevents people with seeds of good ideas from getting
started. Oh, you know what else movies get wrong about innovation? No
one writes math formulas on glass. That’s not a thing.

These graduates are entering an era of polarised views. These new
high-flyers are not going to be spread across the country – they’re
planning careers that will see them clustering in three areas, New York,
Massachusetts and California. About a 10th expect to head overseas. The
biggest job destinations immediately after college are consulting,
finance and technology. But if this gives a picture of where the new
money will be made, 60% of the new graduates still expect to be
depending on money from their parents.

It’s good to be idealistic. But be prepared to be misunderstood. Anyone
working on a big vision will get called crazy, even if you end up right.
Anyone working on a complex problem will get blamed for not fully
understanding the challenge, even though it’s impossible to know
everything upfront. Anyone taking initiative will get criticized for
moving too fast, because there’s always someone who wants to slow you
down.

毕业生们正进入多元化时代。但这些优秀的毕业生们却没有奔赴全美各地,他们的就业选择集中在美国纽约、马萨诸塞州和加州。另有大约十分之一的毕业生期望海外就业和深造。毕业生们的首个工作选择主要集中在咨询、金融和技术行业。当被问及将如何赚取人生第一桶金时,60%的哈佛毕业生仍期望从父母那里获得资金支持。

In our society, we often don’t do big things because we’re so afraid of
making mistakes that we ignore all the things wrong today if we do
nothing. The reality is, anything we do will have issues in the future.
But that can’t keep us from starting.

So what are we waiting for? It’s time for our generation-defining public
works. How about stopping climate change before we destroy the planet
and getting millions of people involved manufacturing and installing
solar panels? How about curing all diseases and asking volunteers to
track their health data and share their genomes? Today we spend 50x more
treating people who are sick than we spend finding cures so people don’t
get sick in the first place. That makes no sense. We can fix this. How
about modernizing democracy so everyone can vote online, and
personalizing education so everyone can learn?

These achievements are within our reach. Let’s do them all in a way that
gives everyone in our society a role. Let’s do big things, not only to
create progress, but to create purpose.

So taking on big meaningful projects is the first thing we can do to
create a world where everyone has a sense of purpose.

The second is redefining equality to give everyone the freedom they need
to pursue purpose.

Many of our parents had stable jobs throughout their careers. Now we’re
all entrepreneurial, whether we’re starting projects or finding or role.
And that’s great. Our culture of entrepreneurship is how we create so
much progress.

Now, an entrepreneurial culture thrives when it’s easy to try lots of
new ideas. Facebook wasn’t the first thing I built. I also built games,
chat systems, study tools and music players. I’m not alone. JK Rowling
got rejected 12 times before publishing Harry Potter. Even Beyonce had
to make hundreds of songs to get Halo. The greatest successes come from
having the freedom to fail.

But today, we have a level of wealth inequality that hurts everyone.
When you don’t have the freedom to take your idea and turn it into a
historic enterprise, we all lose. Right now our society is way
over-indexed on rewarding success and we don’t do nearly enough to make
it easy for everyone to take lots of shots.

Let’s face it. There is something wrong with our system when I can leave
here and make billions of dollars in 10 years while millions of students
can’t afford to pay off their loans, let alone start a business.

Look, I know a lot of entrepreneurs, and I don’t know a single person
who gave up on starting a business because they might not make enough
money. But I know lots of people who haven’t pursued dreams because they
didn’t have a cushion to fall back on if they failed.

We all know we don’t succeed just by having a good idea or working hard.
We succeed by being lucky too. If I had to support my family growing up
instead of having time to code, if I didn’t know I’d be fine if Facebook
didn’t work out, I wouldn’t be standing here today. If we’re honest, we
all know how much luck we’ve had.

Every generation expands its definition of equality. Previous
generations fought for the vote and civil rights. They had the New Deal
and Great Society. Now it’s our time to define a new social contract for
our generation.

We should have a society that measures progress not just by economic
metrics like GDP, but by how many of us have a role we find meaningful.
We should explore ideas like universal basic income to give everyone a
cushion to try new things. We’re going to change jobs many times, so we
need affordable childcare to get to work and healthcare that aren’t tied
to one company. We’re all going to make mistakes, so we need a society
that focuses less on locking us up or stigmatizing us. And as technology
keeps changing, we need to focus more on continuous education throughout
our lives.

And yes, giving everyone the freedom to pursue purpose isn’t free.
People like me should pay for it. Many of you will do well and you
should too.

That’s why Priscilla and I started the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative and
committed our wealth to promoting equal opportunity. These are the
values of our generation. It was never a question of if we were going to
do this. The only question was when.

Millennials are already one of the most charitable generations in
history. In one year, three of four US millennials made a donation and
seven out of ten raised money for charity.

But it’s not just about money. You can also give time. I promise you, if
you take an hour or two a week — that’s all it takes to give someone a
hand, to help them reach their potential.

Maybe you think that’s too much time. I used to. When Priscilla
graduated from Harvard she became a teacher, and before she’d do
education work with me, she told me I needed to teach a class. I
complained: “Well, I’m kind of busy. I’m running this company.” But she
insisted, so I taught a middle school program on entrepreneurship at the
local Boys and Girls Club.

I taught them lessons on product development and marketing, and they
taught me what it’s like feeling targeted for your race and having a
family member in prison. I shared stories from my time in school, and
they shared their hope of one day going to college too. For five years
now, I’ve been having dinner with those kids every month. One of them
threw me and Priscilla our first baby shower. And next year they’re
going to college. Every one of them. First in their families.

We can all make time to give someone a hand. Let’s give everyone the
freedom to pursue their purpose — not only because it’s the right thing
to do, but because when more people can turn their dreams into something
great, we’re all better for it.

Purpose doesn’t only come from work. The third way we can create a sense
of purpose for everyone is by building community. And when our
generation says “everyone”, we mean everyone in the world.

Quick show of hands: how many of you are from another country? Now, how
many of you are friends with one of these folks? Now we’re talking. We
have grown up connected.

In a survey asking millennials around the world what defines our
identity, the most popular answer wasn’t nationality, religion or
ethnicity, it was “citizen of the world”. That’s a big deal.

Every generation expands the circle of people we consider “one of us”.
For us, it now encompasses the entire world.

We understand the great arc of human history bends towards people coming
together in ever greater numbers — from tribes to cities to nations —
to achieve things we couldn’t on our own.

We get that our greatest opportunities are now global — we can be the
generation that ends poverty, that ends disease. We get that our
greatest challenges need global responses too — no country can fight
climate change alone or prevent pandemics. Progress now requires coming
together not just as cities or nations, but also as a global community.

But we live in an unstable time. There are people left behind by
globalization across the world. It’s hard to care about people in other
places if we don’t feel good about our lives here at home. There’s
pressure to turn inwards.

This is the struggle of our time. The forces of freedom, openness and
global community against the forces of authoritarianism, isolationism
and nationalism. Forces for the flow of knowledge, trade and immigration
against those who would slow them down. This is not a battle of nations,
it’s a battle of ideas. There are people in every country for global
connection and good people against it.

This isn’t going to be decided at the UN either. It’s going to happen at
the local level, when enough of us feel a sense of purpose and stability
in our own lives that we can open up and start caring about everyone.
The best way to do that is to start building local communities right
now.

We all get meaning from our communities. Whether our communities are
houses or sports teams, churches or music groups, they give us that
sense we are part of something bigger, that we are not alone; they give
us the strength to expand our horizons.

That’s why it’s so striking that for decades, membership in all kinds of
groups has declined as much as one-quarter. That’s a lot of people who
now need to find purpose somewhere else.

But I know we can rebuild our communities and start new ones because
many of you already are.

I met Agnes Igoye, who’s graduating today. Where are you, Agnes? She
spent her childhood navigating conflict zones in Uganda, and now she
trains thousands of law enforcement officers to keep communities safe.

I met Kayla Oakley and Niha Jain, graduating today, too. Stand up. Kayla
and Niha started a non-profit that connects people suffering from
illnesses with people in their communities willing to help.

I met David Razu Aznar, graduating from the Kennedy School today. David,
stand up. He’s a former city councilor who successfully led the battle
to make Mexico City the first Latin American city to pass marriage
equality — even before San Francisco.

This is my story too. A student in a dorm room, connecting one community
at a time, and keeping at it until one day we connect the whole world.

Change starts local. Even global changes start small — with people like
us. In our generation, the struggle of whether we connect more, whether
we achieve our biggest opportunities, comes down to this — your ability
to build communities and create a world where every single person has a
sense of purpose.

Class of 2017, you are graduating into a world that needs purpose. It’s
up to you to create it.

Now, you may be thinking: can I really do this?

Remember when I told you about that class I taught at the Boys and Girls
Club? One day after class I was talking to them about college, and one
of my top students raised his hand and said he wasn’t sure he could go
because he’s undocumented. He didn’t know if they’d let him in.

Last year I took him out to breakfast for his birthday. I wanted to get
him a present, so I asked him and he started talking about students he
saw struggling and said “You know, I’d really just like a book on social
justice.”

I was blown away. Here’s a young guy who has every reason to be cynical.
He didn’t know if the country he calls home — the only one he’s known
— would deny him his dream of going to college. But he wasn’t feeling
sorry for himself. He wasn’t even thinking of himself. He has a greater
sense of purpose, and he’s going to bring people along with him.

It says something about our current situation that I can’t even say his
name because I don’t want to put him at risk. But if a high school
senior who doesn’t know what the future holds can do his part to move
the world forward, then we owe it to the world to do our part too.

Before you walk out those gates one last time, as we sit in front of
Memorial Church, I am reminded of a prayer, Mi Shebeirach, that I say
whenever I face a challenge, that I sing to my daughter thinking about
her future when I tuck her into bed. It goes:

“May the source of strength, who blessed the ones before us, help
usfind the courageto make our lives a blessing.”

I hope you find the courage to make your life a blessing.

Congratulations, Class of ’17! Good luck out there.

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